Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology : Current Research

Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology : Current Research Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research is an Open Access, peer-reviewed journal which aims to provide the most rapid and reliable source of information on current developments in the field of Zoology.
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research is using online manuscript submission, for quality and quick review processing. Review processing is performed by the Editorial Board members of Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript.

Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research renders articles representing interdisciplinary endeavours with research elaborating the study of Biology, Ecology, Genetics,Molecular Biology and Pathology of insects, birds and reptiles. Scope of Ornithology covers Molecular Systematics, Adaptations for flight, Thermoregulation, avian mating strategies, Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics, Effects of chemicals on breeding, phytogeography, conservation, bird pathology, falcony etc. Scope of Herpetology includes Evolutionary Systems, Anatomy, Reproductive modes, Water balance & gas exchange, Thermoregulation, Spacing, movement & Orientation, Social behaviour, Defence & escape, Conservation biology etc.

Mission: Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology: Current Research mainly concentrates on the study of Biology, ecology, genetics, molecular biology and pathology of insects, birds and reptiles. The readership includes scholars, researchers, and common people.

04/26/2014
Potential to exploit postmortem enzyme degradation for evaluating arthropod viability - Springer

Title: Potential to exploit postmortem enzyme degradation for evaluating arthropod viability

Authors: Craig B. Phillips, llia I. lline, Max Novoselov and Nicola K. Richards

Description: Inspecting for live organisms is the main method used to verify efficacy of phytosanitary treatments. Evaluating whether small, immobile organisms such as eggs, pupae and scale insects are alive or dead usually involves either checking morphological criteria or rearing them to observe development. These methods can be inaccurate, impractical and time consuming; thus, better methods are needed. To evaluate the potential for developing enzyme-based viability assays, we used electrophoretic gels to evaluate postmortem degradation of ten enzymes in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), four in Bemisia flocculosa Gill and Holder (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and seven in Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Fresh insects displayed strong enzyme activity and distinct bands, but dead insects exhibited either no activity or weakened activity with reduced band resolution and increased migration of stained areas. Of ten enzymes investigated, seven showed clear indications of degradation just 1 day postmortem. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of enzymes can be used to evaluate organism viability and has potential for estimating postmortem intervals. We also measured postmortem degradation rates of five M. domestica enzymes by assaying them in solution; these showed constant or gradually declining activity for 28 days postmortem, so live and dead specimens were less easily distinguished. By assaying enzymes in solution, it is possible to develop quick, easily operated tests that can be used outside the laboratory for a variety of quarantine-related purposes

Link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13355-014-0264-0/fulltext.html

04/26/2014
Detoxification Related Genes in Gut of Coptotermes curvignathus | Open Access | OMICS Publishing...

Title: Detoxification Related Genes in Gut of Coptotermes curvignathus

Authors: Suliana Charles, Patricia KingJie Hung, Joseph Bong Choon Fah, OngKian Huat

Description: Coptotermes curvignathus (C. curvignathus) are subterranean termites that feed on living-tree as their sole diet,which consist mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, plant allele chemical and other environmental residues such as insecticide. The xenobiotic compounds, plant allele chemical and insecticide are hazardous to termites health and need to be transported out of their body via xenobiotic and detoxification metabolism. This paper highlighted the potential enzymes that play vital role in the xenobiotic and detoxification metabolism. Transcriptomic data were generated from 200 termite’s digestive system using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Raw data was trimmed and assembled by SOLEXAQA and Bowtie before loaded into Gene Ontology based data mining software, Blast2GO (B2G). The result showed that, C. curvignathus contain enzymes that involved in all three biotransformation phases of xenobiotic and detoxification metabolism, which included cytochrome P450s monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferase, carboxylesterase, UDPglucuronyltransferases and N-acetyltransferase. The result of this study is the first insight into Cc xenobiotic pathway.

Link: http://omicsonline.org/open-access/detoxification-related-genes-in-gut-of-coptotermes-curvignathus-2161-0983.1000117.php?aid=24254

Coptotermes curvignathus (C. curvignathus) are subterranean termites that feed on living-tree as their sole diet

04/26/2014

Title: Effects of Constant Temperatures on Reproductive Parameters of the Psocid Liposcelis rufa (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)

Authors: Gautam SG, Opit GP and Giles KL

Description: The effects of eight temperatures on the reproductive parameters of the psocid Liposcelis rufa Broadhead (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) were investigated at 75% RH. Peak oviposition rates (eggs/female/wk) at temperatures of 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35, 37.5, and 40°C were 5.9, 7.7, 10.6, 13.7, 14.7, 15.4, 13.8, and 8.9, respectively. At these temperatures, L. rufa laid 49, 58, 64, 71, 86, 89, 94, and 94%, respectively, of the total number of eggs in the first 4 wks. The predicted overall oviposition rate or mean number of eggs laid by each female per wk over its lifetime increased with temperature and was highest at 38.3°C (3.82 eggs/female/wk). The longest preoviposition and postoviposition periods were observed at 22.5°C and were 4.4 d and 79.6 d, respectively. Oviposition period and longevity decreased with increasing temperature-at 22.5°C, these parameters were 145 and 229 d, respectively; and at 40°C, they were 26 and 36 d, respectively. The longest-lived individuals lived for 59, 47, 35, 22, 15, 17, 12, and 9 wk at 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, 35, 37.5, and 40°C, respectively. Intrinsic rate of population increase increased with temperature until 32.5°C (0.18) and then declined. The temperature-dependent equations that we have developed for preoviposition period, postoviposition period, oviposition period, oviposition rate, fecundity, longevity, and percentage of life spent in oviposition can be used in simulation models to predict L. rufa population dynamics for the development of effective management strategies.

Link: http://omicsonline.org/effects-of-constant-temperatures-on-reproductive-parameters-of-the%20psocid-liposcelis-rufa-psocoptera-liposcelididae-2161-0983.S1-002.php?aid=5216

Title: Population Dynamic of the Safflower Fly, Acanthiophilus Helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Gachsaran Regio...
04/26/2014
Population Dynamic of the Safflower Fly, Acanthiophilus Helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae)...

Title: Population Dynamic of the Safflower Fly, Acanthiophilus Helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Gachsaran Region, Iran

Author names: Karim Saeidi

Description: Safflower fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossiis one of the most important pests of safflower in most parts of the country. Losses caused by larval feeding lead to disrupted plant activities, reduction in flower buds and ultimately decreased quality and quantity of the crop. In order to study seasonal flight activity of Acanthiophilus helianthi, experiments were conducted for two consecutive years at two different fields in Gachsaran region in 2007-2008. The seasonal flight of Acanthiophilus helianthi was investigated by using Baits traps and collecting samples from eggs, larva and pupa stages of the pest. The results showed that Acanthiophilus helianthi has three generations with an incomplete 4th in the region. Damage of first and fourth generation was very low. The flower heads were mainly damaged by the second and third generation of Acanthiophilus helianthi that happened about ten days after the adult emergency.

HTML link: http://omicsonline.org/population-dynamic-of-the-safflower-fly-acanthiophilus-helianthi-rossi-diptera-tephritidae-in-gachsaran-region-iran-2161-0983.1000103.php?aid=12441

Safflower fly, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossiis one of the most important pests of safflower in most parts of the country. Losses caused by larval feeding lead to disrupted plant activities, reduction in flower buds and ultimately decreased quality and quantity of the crop. In order to study seasona…

Title: Mini Review: Karyotypic Survey in Triatominae Subfamily (Hemiptera,Heteroptera)Author names: Kaio Cesar Chaboli A...
02/24/2014

Title: Mini Review: Karyotypic Survey in Triatominae Subfamily (Hemiptera,Heteroptera)

Author names: Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Joao Aristeu da Rosa and Maria TerciliaVilela de Azeredo Oliveira

Description:
The Triatominae subfamily consists of 145 species distributed in 18 genera and grouped in six tribes. Currently,there are 86 karyotypes described in the literature, distributed in 11 genera. There are five chromosomal complements described for these bloodsucking insects, out more, 22 (20A+XY), 23 (20A+X1X2Y), 24 (20A+X1X2X3Y), 21 (18A+X1X2Y), 25 (22A+X1X2Y). Thus, we review all triatomine species with the number of chromosomes described in the literature. Through these data highlight the importance of further analysis cytogenetic with karyotype description in Triatominae subfamily, since it can help as an important tool cytotaxonomy and mainly allows the understanding of the evolution of this important group of insect vectors of Chagas disease.

Link: http://www.omicsonline.org/mini-review-karyotypic-survey-in-triatominae-subfamily-hemiptera-heteroptera-2161-0983.1000106.php?aid=15483

Title: Haementerialutzi Pinto, 1920 (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) as a putative Vector of Trypanosomaevansi (Kinetoplasti...
02/22/2014

Title: Haementerialutzi Pinto, 1920 (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) as a putative Vector of Trypanosomaevansi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Matogrossense (MS, Brazil)

Author names: João Carlos AraujoCarreira, Bianca dos Santos Carvalho, ReginaldoPeçanha and Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

Description:
In the present study, it was shown under experimental conditions that Trypanosomaevansi could be mechanically transmitted to Rattusnorvegicus by leeches (Haementerialutzi). Additionally, we also described some aspects related to the behavior of the Trypanosomaevansi in the leeches after an infective blood feeding, as follows: a) 10 minutes after the parasites were ingested; they promptly progressed to the coelomic cavity. b) Approximately, from 10 to 30 minutes inside the gut, rounded and dividing forms together with stumpy and slender trypomastigotes showed a random dispersion. c) 24 hours after, the trypanosomes also invaded both, the salivary glands as well as the proboscis cells. Our results suggest that leeches of the species Haementerialutzi could have some role as a probable alternative vector of Trypanosomaevansi at wetlands in Brazil.

Link: http://www.omicsonline.org/Haementeria-lutzi-Pinto-1920-Hirudinea-Glossiphoniidae-as-a-putative-Vector-of-Trypanosoma-evansi-Kinetoplastida-Trypanosomatidae-in-the-Pantanal-Matogrossense-MS-Brazil-2161-0983.1000108.php?aid=18806

Title: Toxic Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Mortality of Flour Beetle Triboliumconfusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Teneb...
02/17/2014

Title: Toxic Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Mortality of Flour Beetle Triboliumconfusum (Duval) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Author names: Wand Khalis Ali and HenaHashim Mohammed

Description:
The study was carried out in the Entomology Laboratory of the Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, and Iraq. Methanol extracts of six local plants (Anethumgraveolens, Apiumgraveolens, Eucalyptus glauca, Malvaparviflora, Menthalongifolia and Zingiberofficinale) were studied for their toxicity effect on mortality of the last larval stage of Triboliumconfusum by assessing the mortality value of the larvae for different plant extracts and different exposure times (1-5 hrs) and estimating the value of LT50 for each plant extract. The mortality were varying from plant to plant as follows: Anethumgraveolens reached its maximum value of 56.67% at 4.5 hrs, for Eucalyptus glauca it was 90% at 2 hrs., for Apiumgraveolens it was 93.33% at 5 hrs exposure and Menthalongifolia it was 93.33% at 4 hrs, while for Malvaparviflora reached 96.67% at 3 hrs, and for Zingiberofficinale reached its maximum value of 100% at 2 hrs. The LT50 values for T. confusum ranged from 1.111 for Zingiberofficinale to 3.146 for Anethumgraveolens whiles the obtained LT50 values were 2.451, 1.392, 1.364 and 1.143 for Apiumgraveolens, Menthalongifolia, Malvaparviflora and Eucalyptus glauca respectively. The results indicate that Zingiberofficinale was the most toxic plant and Anethumgraveolens the least toxic

Link: http://www.omicsonline.org/toxic-effect-of-some-plant-extracts-on-the-mortality-of-flour-beetle-tribolium-confusum-duval-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-2161-0983.1000115.php?aid=22003

Title: Occurrence, Abundance and Control of the Major Insect Pests Associated with Amaranths in Ibadan, NigeriaAuthor na...
02/17/2014

Title: Occurrence, Abundance and Control of the Major Insect Pests Associated with Amaranths in Ibadan, Nigeria

Author names: Aderolu,Omooloye AA and Okelana FA

Description:
Beetworm Moth (BM), Hymenia recurvalis F. is a major defoliator of Amaranthus species causing severe yield loss. Control with synthetic insecticide is being discouraged for its adverse effects. Information on sustainable management of BM with ecologically friendly methods is scanty. Three Amaranthus species: A. cruentus, A. blitum and A. hybridus were evaluated for insect diversity and abundance during wet and dry seasons of two years following standard procedures. Data collected were Leaf Area Damage (LAD) (cm2); Infestation per plant (I) and Field Abundance (FA). Three neem extracts: 0.125 g Aqueous Neem Leaf (ANL) w/v; 0.125 g Aqueous Neem Bark Ash (ANBA) w/v and Aqueous Modified ANL+ANBA (AMAN) (1:1) all at 3l/25 m2 were bioassayed against BM using λ-cyhalothrin at 2.5 ml/25m2 and water as controls. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA at P>0.05, Shannon index (H), Simpson index (1-D) and evenness. Sixty insect species from 29 families and 12 orders; comprising 31 defoliators, 12 predators, one pupa parasitoid (Apanteleshymeneae) and 16 non-economic species were encountered on Amaranthus species. The BM was the most damaging causing 69.4 ± 0.16% loss of foliage compared to control. The species abundance in both seasons was BM (2916.8 ± 138.83)>Hypolixustruncatulus (2262.7 ± 94.1) >Lixustruncatulus (2088.7 ± 36.4). Shannon (3.52), 1-D (0.96) and evenness index (0.65) of diversity were high with few dominant species. The AMAN at 3l/25 m2 w/v extract caused significant reduction of leaf damage (72 ± 0.05%) and field infestation (78 ± 0.06%) compared to the untreated control; but comparatively less effective by only 5% to λ-cyhalothrin; implying suitability as environmentally safe control measure.

Link: http://www.omicsonline.org/occurrence-abundance-and-control-of-the-major-insect-pests-associated-with-amaranths-in-ibadan-nigeria-2161-0983.1000112.php?aid=21997

Title: A Survey of Roadside Soil Arthropod Communities from Three Elevations in MauritiusAuthor names: ZaynabJawaheer, H...
02/14/2014

Title: A Survey of Roadside Soil Arthropod Communities from Three Elevations in Mauritius

Author names: ZaynabJawaheer, HarinderRai Singh and SeelavarnGaneshan

Description: This study was carried out in Mauritius during summer from November 2012 to April 2013. The objectives of this study were to quantify the species richness and diversity, abundance and biomass of soil arthropod from roadside trees found at three different elevations in Mauritius. Soil arthropods were collected utilizing pitfall traps made of plastic cups at three different elevations (Flic en Flac, 5 m; Rose-Hill, 221 m; and Mare aux Vacoas, 569 m). Traps were placed among Casuarinaequisetifolia (5 m), Dictyosperma album (221 m) and Pinussylvestris (569 m) trees. A total of 18422 arthropods were sampled of which 10681 individuals were sampled at 5 m, 5216 individuals at 221 m and 2525 individuals at 569 m. The abundant soil arthropods were Hymenoptera (Formicidae) (54.0%) and Coleoptera (Nitidulidae) (32.7%). The alpha diversity of soil arthropods varied between elevations [(5 m, 0.907), (221 m, 0.727), (569 m, 1.54). Soil arthropod species evenness was highest at 221m (0.77) followed by 5 m (0.69) and lowest at 569 m (0.53). Formicidae was abundant at 221 m (91.4%) while Anisolabidae (38.6%) was abundant at 569 m. Significant difference in weight between elevation (p

Title: Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocorid...
02/06/2014

Title: Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Abundance

Author names: Santiago A. Palizada, Difabachew K. Belay, Bamphitlhi Tiroesele, Fatima Mustafa

Description:
Non-target effects of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab+Cry3Bb1×CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on insidious flower bugs [Orius insidiosus (Say)] was studied in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) during 2007 and 2008. The Bt effect was compared to CP4 EPSPS maize (isoline), conventional maize, and insecticide applications of permethrin (Pounce® 1.5G) and bifenthrin (Capture® 2EC) to control first and second generations of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), respectively. Yellow sticky cards, visual observations, and destructive samplings were used to evaluate O. insidiosus abundance. The yellow sticky card data in 2007 showed that O. insidiosus abundance was lower on Pounce® 1.5G treated non-Bt isoline maize plots compared to the BT transgenic hybrid s at 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP). From visual observations, numbers of O. insidiosus were lower in Pounce® 1.5G treated plots and no adverse effects of the Bt hybrids was observed. In 2008, no significant differences were found among treatments in the sticky card data, but the O. insidiosus population significantly increased, with increasing DAP, where the lowest and highest numbers were recorded at 30 and 120 DAP, respectively. In the visual observation and destructive samplings, numbers of O. insidiosus were lower at Concord compared to other sites. Results from the visual observation data in 2008 also revealed that O.insidiosus abundance was lower on Pounce® 1.5G treated plots compared to other treatments. This study showed no adverse effects of the new BT transgenic hybrids that included stacked resistance genes on O. insidiosus compared to the non-Bt maize hybrids.

Link: http://www.omicsonline.org/non-target-effect-of-cry1-ab-and-cry-ab-x-cry3-bb1-bt-transgenic-maize%20on-orius-insidiosus-hemiptera-anthocoridae-abundance-2161-0983.1000107.php?aid=16861

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