African Moorish Studies Project

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Tierno Bokar (1875-1939), African mystic and Muslim spiritual teacher, was remarkable for the drama of his life story (w...

Tierno Bokar (1875-1939), African mystic and Muslim spiritual teacher, was remarkable for the drama of his life story (which was made into a recent play directed by Peter Brook). His message of religious tolerance and universal love is profoundly important in a world where different faiths are often at odds with each other.

This easy-to-read book tells the story of Tierno Bokar (1875-1939), a devoted Muslim spiritual teacher who lived and died in what is now Mali. He spent his life teaching others about Islam and God, and yet was brought down by his countrymen's jealousy, tribalism, and deliberate refusal to understand what was really important in a Muslim's life. -- Islamic Horizons, January/February 2008 issue

Tierno Bokar (1875-1939), African mystic and Muslim spiritual teacher, was remarkable for the drama of his life story (which was made into a recent play directed by Peter Brook). His message of religious tolerance and universal love is profoundly important in a world where different faiths are often at odds with each other.

The feigned moral indignity expressed by the ilk of highly paid, well placed public (Provocateurs)…nee commentators over...
International Indigenous Society of All Religions of God and Faith » A look At Moorish/Muslims Their Architecture and Influences In Indian Country

The feigned moral indignity expressed by the ilk of highly paid, well placed public (Provocateurs)…nee commentators over the installation of a mosque at the 9/11 Ground Zero site, tends to confound researchers like me. Mosques’ (at least to my mind) are a grand testament to the ultimate in Moorish/Muslim Architecture. Beyond that, it is an apt reminder of the great body of Muslim-Moorish influences once pre-existing in the Hemispheric Aboriginal Indian Country of the places we now know to be the Americas.

I must admit to wondering what had gotten the Catholic Majesties in such a twisted bunch that it created an absolute blind rage and hatred of the Saracens that they would dare to chase them into the realm of unknown lands (and apparently past the sheer edge of the square world-a belief in vogue in their era) in order to vanquish them forever?
What’s more, the Catholic Majesties with the blessing of his Papal Highness and the Holy See, sealed the fate of the Saracens and their descendants to a condition of “authorized Perpetual Slavery” forever, with a vow to vanquish their “Kingdoms, Duchies, counties, principalities (etc., etc.) wherever they exist” and promptly set their sights on the takeover of the Americas.

So it is the Pope and the Catholic Majesties themselves that gives us our first clue of the location of the extended Kingdoms of the Saracens as they descended upon the America’s with their Armada bearing Men of the Cloth, Sacristy Conversion Kits and Expedition of Heavily-armed Conquistadors at the ready to kill all Saracens resistant to forceful conversion to Christianity.

The Dum Diversas granted Hernando De Soto and others “Apostolic Authority” [on behalf of the Kings of Spain and Portugal]; (“We grant you by these present documents, with our Apostolic Authority, full and free permission to invade, search out, capture and subjugate the Saracens and pagans and any other unbelievers and enemies of Christ wherever they may be, as well as their kingdoms, duchies, counties, principalities, and other property {…..} and to reduce their persons into perpetual slavery”.
Note: Apostolic, means relating to the Pope…therefore stating Papal Authority.

Anyway, Hernando de Soto (and others) did come here into the interior Indian Country of the extended kingdom of Saracens and left numerous descriptions of his travails and very surprising narratives describing Indian settlements with Moorish Architecture, use of Moorish Mats, Moorish Darts, and Moorish Cloaks. He also wrote extensively about Indian Chiefs wearing “Almaizars” like “Moors. ” A later Trail of Tears description of Black Indians recalled the “Negro Indians” on horseback wearing “Almaizars” Moorish Wraps, giving them an “Arab Deportment.”

In “Carolina”, we found evidence of numerous Indian Settlements repurposed into Plantations, the name of one was “Sarazins” (“Sarazens“). The aboriginal name of the Indian Settlement was Saracens (at the point of contact with the Lord’s Proprietors). Even if the place was named by Whites as claimed by Euro-His-Story, it is telling in either case that the Black Indian inhabitants (prior to Colonial Settlement) were decreed “Saracens”. Further removing doubt, Ethnologists referred to the Aborigines as “Ishmaelites.”

Seafaring Moorish “Mariners” of Aboriginal Indian Country

Seafaring ancient Moroccans, Tunisians, Algerians, Turks and Canary Islanders were
Marine travelers to the Americas. Their ventures actually started hundreds of years earlier by Moorish, Carthaginian and Phoenician Ancestors.

U.S. Ethnologist and First Director of the Smithsonian Institution, J.W. Powell documented in his early 1880s Report, an unusual find in Queen Weetamoor’s Rhode Island Province, a Burial Mound containing what he described as an ancient “Native in Carthaginian Armor”. A very detailed description of both the Native and the Armor was filed in the report, which included “leather straps” consistent with “maronquinerie” (or leatherware).

Due to the complex early Maritime claims upon the waterways, the 18th Century found Americans already functioning under working International Treaties with Morocco, Algiers, Tunisia, and Tripoli. George Washington and President Thomas Jefferson maintained the Barbary States Treaties (Maritime Treaties) with the same Moorish countries. The status of the Treaties was reported in each Presidential State of the Union Address until 1830, which coincidently overlaps with the removal of the Indians from their Native Settlements to areas west of the Mississippi (along with their Black Tribal Citizens and Free Persons of Color-whom as we are reminded were neither considered Slaves, nor subject to U.S. or State or “Negro Laws” (as confirmed by the South Carolina Legislature in 1790). However, the forced Indian removals (along with their Ethnic Black Tribal Citizens and Free Persons of Color) resulted in cutoff communications between Maritime Nations and citizens situated in Sovereign Colonies and Black Indian Settlements.

Historic Moorish/Muslim Influences In The Aboriginal Indian Country

The name “Moors” has always referred to several historic and modern populations of Berbers, Black Africans and Africans of Arab descent from Northern Africa, Muslim Iberians and West Africans from Mali and Niger, who had been absorbed into the Almoravid dynasty, some of whom came to conquer and occupy the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslims (or followers of Islam), although earlier people had followed other religions. They called the territory Al Andalus, comprising most of what is now Spain and Portugal.

Almoravid Dynasty

The Almoravids were a Berber Muslim Dynasty that ruled Morocco and Muslim Spain in the 11th and 12th centuries. They may have originated in what is now Mauritania. Their founder was Abd Allah ibn Yasin, who by military force converted a number of Saharan tribes to his own reformed religion and then advance on Morocco. After his death c. 1059, Yusuf ibn Tashfin and his brother Abu Bakr came to power. Marrakech was founded (c. 1062) and was the center of a power empire. Called by the Moors in Spain to help stem Christian reconquest, Yusef entered Andalusia and defeated (c.1086) Alfonso VI of Castile. He later subdued the local Muslim rulers and governed Muslim Spain and N. Morocco (Abu Baker ruled over S Morocco). The dynasty also pushed south, destroying the ancient state of Ghana. In the 12th century they were attacked by the Almohads, who finally (by 1174) won both Morocco and Muslim Spain.

The Moors’ rule stretched at times as far as modern-day Mauretania, West African countries, and the Senegal River. Parts of Mauretania covered northern portions of modern Morocco and much of north western and central Algeria during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in classical literature as the Mauri.

The term Mauri, or variations, was later used by European traders and explorers of the 16th to 18th centuries to designate ethnic Berber and Arab groups speaking the Hassaniya Arabic dialect. In modern Iberia, the term is applied to people of Moroccan ethnicity.

The root of the word appears as; mouro, moro, moir, mor and maur. The root has taken on a variety of meanings, including “Moreno” from Latin. It can also mean “Black Person” or “Mulatto.” Moor came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Moros and Moriscos of Granada. Early ethnologists called Islamic Blacks in the Americas, “Mohammedans”. Guanches from the Canary Islands were descended from Berbers and Anthropologists confirm finding ancient markings from inhabitants in the Canary Islands bearing the letters (Z)(A)(N)(A)(T)(A), a direct reference to Berbers of Moorish Origin. What’s more, Colonies of these Canarians were also found among the tribes of pre-colonial (and Colonial era) “Carolina” in what is now the Americas.


Saracens, refers to Muslim/Moors. In fact the name figures prominently in the ancient Biblical story of Isaac and Ishmael, the sons of Abraham. The children of Abraham and his Jewish wife Sarah are descended from Isaac. Further, the children of Abraham and Hagar, the Egyptian Slave are descended from Ishmael and are empty of, or “without” a genetic DNA contribution from Sarah (Genesis 16, 21:1–21)
Therefore, the Muslim descendants of Ishmael are those empty of Sara or “without Sara” (born “outside of Sara”) and were referred to as “Saracens“. Some text refer to them as Hagarenes. Despite Egyptian ancestry this population are considered to be Arabs.
It seems that since they were born of a “Slave” their enemies decided that descendants of Ishmael should be “perpetual Slaves” throughout every generation and wherever they lived (even after removing to faraway lands), although they were Blessed by God to be a mighty Nation, children of the desert, proficient with a bow.

Remembering An Aboriginal Moorish-Indian Queen
The next story centers upon the ancient settlement of a Black Indian Queen killed by beheading in 1674 as a preemptive act of aggression and example to others by the militarized settlers of Natick, Massachusetts in the opening salvo of King Philips War. Although Queen Weetamoor’s ancient Burial Mounds were in existence at contact, the great Mound treasure was not discovered until later. Her story appears out of sequence due to its strategic geographical situation as an Atlantic settlement of Indian-Moors.

Moors Dominate The Atlantic -Hassanimisco: Queen Weetamoor’s Settlement

Queen Weetamoor’s Country was Aquetneck (the Aboriginal name of Rhode Island).
She was ruler of Atlantic Coastal Black Indian Tribes and a kinsmen of Massasoit and King Phillip of the Narragansett and Wampanoag Nations. The Queen was“Squaw Sachem of Pocasset at Fall River (extent territory to Massachusetts). Weetamoor was also related to Tuspaquin, known as “the Black Sachem“ or Black Chief.
These were the Indian groups that welcomed the first Pilgrims in the Americas upon the word of Tisquantum or “Squanto”.

Hassani-Morisco: Moroccan Muslim/Moors- Weetamoor’s People

Weetamoor’s Tribal Town called Hassanimisco, was a compound word which seems to have contained two important elements specific to Morocco; the first being a similarity to the name derived from the spoken language of Morocco known as “Hassaniyya”. The second element being the word “Morisco”, the name given to Indigenous Moors in ancient times converted forcefully by the Spanish to Christianity.
Alternate names are: Hasanya and Hassani. The Classification is Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South and Arabic. The alternate Hassani, plus Morisco would produce Hassanimorisco, literally meaning Hassani speaking Moroccan Muslim/Moors. In short, they were a special group of Saracens escaping conversion and established Colonies in the Aboriginal Indian Country. Queen Weetamoor’s chosen Colony name gives great clues as to the era of their escape and settlement (11th or 12th century).
They were Subjects of the Kings of Morocco. Further their tribal families would also settle Carolina and the interior.

Moors of Carolina

Besides Hassanimisco, large Moorish Native communities are known to have existed in Delaware. A city known as Cheswold, Delaware was composed of Moorish Natives with known connections to the Lenni-Lenape and Nanticoke Nations of Delmarva.
Extensive Moorish Colonies, Indian-Moor Communities and Creole Settlements among many other Tribal Nations existed in North and South Carolina (including Turks, Guanches and other “allies” captured by many Indian Census Reports, Treaties and historical documents (particularly among the Nations of the 5 Civilized Tribes). These nearly indescribable persons were subsequently categorized as “free persons of color,” “free blacks,” “Mulattos” and “Negro” among the Tribes.

Moors As Guides In The Aboriginal Indian Country
Hernando De Soto in Ancient Carolina

Hernando de Soto made several very curious remarks during his travels. He lamented in one discussion about his Moors being the ancestors of the Indians. The other observation being that after the loss of Moors from his Expedition, De Soto’s team seems to have become vulnerable, unstable and directionally confused.
Hernando De Soto also recorded numerous items in ancient “Carolina” and Alabama bearing Moorish influences, such as those documented in their original narratives, confirmed by a Scholarly recounting in “DeSoto Chronicles, The Expedition of Hernando de Soto to North America in 1539-1543 by Lawrence A. Clayton, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, Editors, Pages 304-305 XVII; “The Army Leave Cofachiqui In Two Divisions”; “Besides these kinds of arrowheads made of copper, such as those they put on darts in Spain, there were others with harpoons, also made of copper, and in the form of small chisels, lances, and Moorish darts, which looked as if they had been made in Castilla.”

De Soto remarked upon his Expedition leaving three African Ancestored People with the Aboriginal Indians between Guaxule, Chiaha, and Xuala; 2 were Negroes and the third was a Moor from Barbary, “a Berber“. [Moor From Barbary, Page 315 XX].

A fourth person left with the Tribe at (Coosa, Creek Nation) was a “Negro named Robles”.

Indian -Moor Colonies
Ancient Carolina Moorish/Muslim Settlements

1526-Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón Expedition
In 1526 an expedition led by Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón founded San Miguel de Guadalupe on the coast at Winyah Bay. San Miguel de Guadalupe is modern day Georgetown County, South Carolina. The Santee River (stream) flows through here. The North and South Confluence of the River can also be found in this county.

Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón’s Spanish-Moor colony is referenced as a “failed” colony in European History recounts because it did not result in an American Pilgrim Colony. Rather, de Ayllón’s Colony evolved as an integrated Native American-Moor Colony.

History: It is noted that in the 1520s the Chicora met Spanish explorer Allyón near Pawley’s Island. Tribal members were spread out in Clarendon, Florence, Georgetown, Horry, Marion and Williamsburg counties. In 1743, the Colonial Government forced nearly all the remaining Indians to move to the Catawba Community. Tribal Leaders met at Cherawtown.

In light of the Colonial Government’s attempt to concentrate area Natives into one vicinity an amalgamation Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón’s Spanish-Moors, the Winyuh, Pee Dee, Waccamaw, Santee, Chicora and Catawba was therefore created.

U.S. Geological Survey Records
San Miguel De Guadelupé (historical)-ID# 1232466 Class-Populated Place, County- Georgetown, State-SC, Latitude-331941N, Longitude-0791539W, Map-Georgetown South.
Winyah Bay Entrance-ID#1251481, Class-Channel, County-Georgetown, State- SC, Latitude-331154N, Longitude-0790856W, Map-Santee Point.
Citation: Quattlebaum, Paul. The Land Called Chicora. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida Press, 1956. P. 126.

1566-Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Expedition

In 1566, another Spaniard under Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, founded a settlement in South Carolina comprised of some 800+ Spaniards and their families, including Spanish Moors. He named the settlement “Santa Elena.” (Menendez de Aivles’ nephew, noted to have been a “Mandingo” settled St. Augustine, Florida.)

Muslim/Moorish Influences In Carolina
South Carolina Historical Society Records in the Carologue, Spring 1993 Edition carried a story entitled, “Muslim Slaves, Abducted Moors, African Jews, Misnamed Turks and an Asiatic Greek Lady. Some Examples of Non-European Diversity in South Carolina Prior to 1861 by James W. Hagy. The South Carolina Historical Society also kept documentation on the “Free Moors” of South Carolina, which was recorded in the Journal of the South Carolina House of Representatives.

Official Documentation Confirming Inhabitation of Free Moors in Carolina
(Extract from the Journal of the House of Representatives, 1789-1790)

“South Carolina had significant ethnic diversity during colonial times. It was home to Free Moors and Turks. While fighting in Defense of their country, the Moors were captured with their wives by a King of Africa. They were claimed by a Captain Clark who was to deliver them to an Ambassador of Morrocco, then living in England, to return them to their own country. Instead he brought them to America, where he sold them into slavery.”
“They petitioned the South Carolina Legislature and the petition stated; That as free born subjects of a Prince now in Alliance with these United States; that they may not be considered as subject to a Law of this State (now in force) called the negro law.
They were freed by the South Carolina Legislature; Report That they have Considered the same and are of opinion that no Law of this State can in its Construction or Operation apply to them, and that persons who were Subjects of the Emperor of Morocco being Free in this State are not triable by the Law for the better Ordering and Governing of Negroes and other Slaves.

Resolved That this House do agree with the Report. They were free persons of color.”
[From The State Records of South Carolina Journals of the
CHRISTINE M. ALLEN, Assistant Editor
Published for the South Carolina Department of Archives and History
by the University of South Carolina Press
Columbia, SC]. South Carolina Historical Society.

Ophir of Solomon: Intriguing Landmarks-Indian Settlements
And Repurposed Plantations in Carolina

Ophir Plantation-Locate, along the Santee, St. John’s Parish, Berkeley County (in present day Pinopolis). Earliest documented date of existence, 1685. A house was erected on the site in 1810. The site currently lies submerged under Lake Moultrie. Plantation lands were originally located near present-day Pinopolis. Ophir is yet another casualty of the Santee Cooper Hydroelectric and Navigation Project. This project displaced many families and communities, including historic homes, Indian Mounds, Burial Places, Cemeteries and Archaeological opportunities were lost as the area was flooded. Despite the fact that Thomas Porcher maintained Native American Slaves here from the point of initial contact, along with the presence and predominance of Indian Burial Mounds, the Ophir Graveyard was classified as “Black.“

Ophir Plantation-331740N 0800528W Chicora Map.
Ophir Canal (historical) Berkeley Chicora unknown 33.294ºN 80.091ºW
Note: Only 3 instances of use of the word appears in the Aboriginal Indian Country. All were associated purely with Indian Nations (2 Cherokee Settlements in North and South Carolina, as well of 1 Northern California Indian Settlements.
Ophir Indian Mounds (Indian)
Ophir Plantation Cemetery (Black)
Ophir Plantation–
{Citation: Ophir Plantation; Manuscripts Department Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill SOUTHERN HISTORICAL COLLECTION #M-823 STONEY AND PORCHER FAMILY PAPERS Inventory Abstract: Records, 1799-1862, of a Charleston District, S.C., plantation}.

Negro Bay 1234351 Swamp Berkeley SC 331742N 0801321W Cross
Feature ID: 1234351 Name: Negro Bay Class: Swamp Citation: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1:62,500-scale topographic maps; various edition dates. Represents new or changed names from published editions. Map name and year of publication follow (if known): Chicora/1921 Entry Date: 01-May-1993 Elevation(ft/m): 92/28

Black Tom Bay 1246906 Swamp Berkeley SC 330854N 0800537W Moncks Corner
Note: The name Monck comes from, George Monck, the Duke of Albemarle (1608-1670) one of the original Lord‘s Proprietor;

Moorfield Plantation-Location-Chicora, Berkeley, SC
Moorfield Swamp-Location, Chicora, Berkeley, SC.
USGS Location:
Moorfield Swamp (historical) 1234340 Swamp Berkeley SC 331846N 0800639W Chicora.
Moorfield Plantation Cemetery (Black).
Black Mingo Swamp (names translates to “Black King Swamp“ or “Black Chief Swamp”).

Indian field (Plantation Cemetery identified as Black).
Indian Field Methodist Campground: National Register of Historic Places #73001707, added 1973. Also known as Indian Fields. About 4 mi. NE of St. George on SC 73. Period of Significance-1825-1849. Indian Field Cemetery Classified as “Black.”

Pooshee Plantation-Location, Chicora, St. Johns Berkeley Parish, Berkeley County (submerged under Lake Moultrie). Plantation lands were originally located near present-day Bonneau. Plantation houses built in 1716, 1804 and a western wing added in 1852. Origin of Name: Native American. Earliest documented date of existence 1705. Land grant to Pierre de St. Julien de Malacare. Number of acres, 4000. Primary crop, Santee long cotton.
Pooshee Plantation (historical) 1234600 Locale Berkeley SC 331901N 0800049W Chicora 75 – 01-MAY-1993. Has separate Cemeteries on Classifed “White” and the other “Black.” Native Americans classed as Black.

San Miguel De Guadelupé (historical)-ID# 1232466, Populated Place, Georgetown, SC, 331941N, 0791539W, Georgetown South.

Old Santee Plantation-Location, Santee River, St. Stephen’s Parish, Berkeley County.

Curriboo Plantation-Location, Berkeley County.

Peru Plantation-Location, St. Stephens Parish, Berkeley County. Portions on Black River, Georgetown County.
Old Peru-ID#1234356, Populated Place, Berkeley, SC, 332514N 0795912W, Saint Stephen.

Sarazen Plantation-Location, Cooper River, Berkeley County (Submerged under Lake Moultrie). Other Names: Sarizins. House built in 1826.

Egypt Plantation-Location, St. James Santee Parish, Berkeley County.

Cote Bas Plantation-Location, Cooper River, Moncks Corner, St. John’s Berkeley County
(located off Bushy Park Road between the Back River and the Cooper River.)

Mexico Plantation-Location, Santee River, St. John’s Berkeley and St. Stephen’s Parish, Berkeley County (bordering the old Santee Canal). Primary crop, Sea island cotton.
Mexico-ID#1231539, Populated Place, York, SC, 345617N 0810017W Rock Hill West.
Mexico Cemetery-ID#1224463, Cemetery, Berkeley, SC, 332643N, 0800636W, Pineville.

Chachan Plantation-Location, Western branch of the Cooper River, Old Cordesville, Berkeley County ( off SC 44 Doctor Evans Road) on Chachan Road. Other Names: North Chacham. Earliest documented dated of existence, 1760. House built 1760. Primary crop, Rice.
Chachan Plantation Cemetery SC Berkeley cemetery 331003N 0795750W Cordesville
Note: linguistically similar to the name of an ancient Peruvian Chimu Settlement, at Chanchan.

Salkehatchie River 1250734 Stream Hampton SC 324731N 0805247W Cummings.

Combahee River: Named for the Combahee Indians who formerly lived on this stream. Description: Heads at the junction of the Salkehatchie River and Little Salkehatchie Rivers, flows SE to the Coosaw River 17.7 km (11 mi) northeast of Beaufort. Citation

Note: The Combahee River was also called “The Jordan River.”
*Citation: Jordan River, Combiheh River,Combeheh River ; Salley, Alexander S., Jr., editor. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708. New York, New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1911.
*Citation: Salkehatchie River; U.S. Board on Geographic Names decisions, either decisions referenced

Hilton Documents Moorish Architecture In Early Carolina

Hilton, in the 1700s described enormous structures typical of Moorish Architecture left in Carolina. Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina.

Moorish/Muslim Mexico, Pacific States and the American Southwest

Further west, when the Padres began bringing Black Mexican Aboriginals to settle the Missions they brought with them Indios, Coyotes, Mulatos, Black Mexicans and Moriscos with names like Amezquita (meaning “To Mosque”), to settle the California Missions from Baja, San Diego, San Luis Rey near Oceanside, San Juan Capistrano, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Buenaventura, San Luis Obispo, Santa Margarita, San Miguel, San Jose, Sonoma, Santa Clara, Solano, as well as San Francisco (in Alta California).

As the Padres set up the Mission systems from Loreto, Baja to San Francisco and even into Arizona, they documented the various descriptions and racial classifications of these settlers, which were (at the outset) Indios, Coyotes (Coyotl), Negro, Quebrado “Broken Black Color.”, Mulato, even Chino (Black with Asian features), Mestiza, Mestizo, people descended from mixed Black Ancestors (for instance Olmec, Mixtec, etc.), and español.

Even though the settling of the Missions represents a pivotal period of early Spanish/Mexican settlement of the Pacific West, we are no less awed by the fact that the most ancient prehistoric remains of an even earlier population of Black Aboriginals has been confirmed by modern forensic archaeological studies.

Tenochtitlán is the original name of Mexico it was founded in 1325 on an islet in the western part of lake Texcoco de Mora, which translates literally into “Our Coco people of Moors.” Nearby Mazatlan de los Mulattos it seems, was literally “the Birthplace of the Mulattos.

The Olmec mated with the Coyoatl or Coyoacan and produced a generation called Coyotes. The “Coyotes” figured prominently in the settler class of emigrating with the
Padres in an effort to help establish settlements in their North America holdings, which were needed to fend off Russian encroachment of the Pacific West. It is clear that Coyotes had some type of African Ancestry.
In the old text, “The Wild Tribes of Mexico“-Physical Features in Northern Mexico, p. 619; “The Tlascaltecs in 1568 wore cotton-cloth mantles painted in various fine colors. The Inhabitants of Cholula, according to Cortes dressed better than the Tlascaltecs; the better class wearing over their clothes a garment resembling the Moorish cloak, yet somewhat different, as that of the Cholula.

In the same book under “Dress in Michoacan, p. 622-623), the following description of a Turban appears; “”on the head a small red cloth arranged like a Turban, from which are pendent scarlet feathers, similar to those used by the ancient Aztec warriors.”

Esteban, the Moor Discovered New Mexico

1536-The most famous Moor in the hemisphere proper was Esteban de Dorantes (“a Black Arab”, a Native of Azemmour, Morocco), a survivor of the Narvaez Expedition to La Florida, who discovered what was (New Spain) and is now Southern New Mexico. He returned to Culiacan, Mexico with stories of having seen the Seven Cities of Cibola (Seven Cities of Gold). He was an “eslavo ladino “ of Andres Dorantes of Bejar del Castanar, Salamanca.
Eslavo Ladino, means a Slave and converted Christian.

Esteban, as he was now known, accompanied Dorantes. King Charles V of Spain granted him authority to settle all of La Florida, a territory that stretched from the southern tip of the Florida peninsula westward to the “Rio de las Palmas,” which is today’s Soto de la Marina River in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

Esteban (also, Estebanico) began his ascent into the Aboriginal Indian Country as one of only four survivors of the 600 members of the Narvaez Expedition in 1527-1528 to colonize La Florida.
Esteban’s survival of the Expedition and subsequent discovery of New Mexico is nothing short of miraculous and should be shouted from the rooftops and shared by other Moors.

According to Cabeza de Vaca, “we enjoyed a great deal of authority and dignity among [the Indians], and to maintain this we spoke very little to them. The black man always spoke to them, ascertaining which way to go and…all the other things we wanted to know.”
Note: [“Black Arab…Native of Azamor” by Kitty Morse, Saudi Aramco World, Volume 53, Number 2, March/April 2002].] Al Zemmouri’s town is a Berber word for “wild olive tree.”

In 1539 Esteban’s purpose during this mission was to lead De Niza from the Island of Malhado (near the Bay of Galveston) to Cibola. Their personalities clashed, as De Niza did not relish the freedom the Moor felt in the Aboriginal Indian Country, nor the pleasant reception he received from the Indians. Esteban rode ahead of the Spaniard and “disappears” within the confines of the Zuni Pueblo. De Niza does not reach Zuni but is met by Indians who notify him of “the death” of Esteban.
European His-Story accounts contend that the New Mexico Indians killed Esteban (for various reasons) although his death was never observed, even those reporting it merely speculated that he had been killed and that is what they told the Spaniards. Did Esteban the Moor slip away as did De Soto’s Moors?

Coincidently, but apparently unrelated to Esteban the Moor, killed in their Pueblo (according to European His-Story);
1. There is an actual “Cibola County” (not a rumor);
2. The Acoma Pueblo is officially San Esteban del Rey de Acoma (literally, “Saint Stephen the King of Acoma“)
3. They too have an El Morro National Monument (the Moor National Monument), and
4. Participate in an ancient Annual Feast honoring San Estevan.

Numerous Structures, including Missions of Moorish Architecture were described, painted and ultimately photographed as a testament to their style, influence and rightful place in this hemisphere bearing Colonies, Settlements and Communities inhabited by the subjects of the Kings of Morocco in this hemisphere. To banish this type of Architectural style is an arrogant insult to their memory, as well as the remnant of their host Nations.

The foregoing are but a mere sampling of my various works presented for your edification.

Angela Molette (Tuscaloosa Ohoyo) Black Warrior Woman


3852 W 28th St
Los Angeles, CA


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