Journal of Applied Physics

Journal of Applied Physics Exploring the underlying physics of modern technology, Journal of Applied Physics publishes significant new results in applied physics. http://jap.aip.org

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics; content is published online daily, collected into two online and printed issues per month (24 issues per year). The journal publishes articles that emphasize understanding of the physics underlying modern technology, but distinguished from technology on the one side and pure physics on the other. Applied Physics Reviews is a series of occasional review articles on topics within this scope. The Proceedings of the Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials is an annual feature.

AIP Publishing
04/14/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

An articles in fluids and soft matter from the Journal of Applied Physics!

AIP Publishing
04/14/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Density functional theory shows that electrical performance in lithiated silicon nanowires remains acceptable even with surface roughness and disorder.

AIP Publishing
04/07/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read more on fluids and soft matter from the Journal of Applied Physics.

New Li-Ni-B compounds are predicted with potential applications in Li-ion battery or superconductors.Iowa State Universi...
04/03/2020
Theoretical search for possible Li–Ni–B crystal structures using an adaptive genetic algorithm

New Li-Ni-B compounds are predicted with potential applications in Li-ion battery or superconductors.

Iowa State University
University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China
Columbia University in the City of New York

The structural diversity of rare-earth and transition metal borides indicates that alkali-transition metal borides (A-T-B) show tremendous promise in exhibiting a variety of crystal structures with...

Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is a wide band gap semiconductor with applications in power electronics. This tutorial discusses t...
04/02/2020
Point defects in Ga2O3

Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is a wide band gap semiconductor with applications in power electronics. This tutorial discusses the properties of point defects in Ga2O3 and the methods employed to study them.

WSU Pullman

In the field of high-power electronics, gallium oxide (Ga2O3) is attracting attention due to its wide bandgap and ability to be doped n-type. Point defects, including vacancies, impurities, and dop...

The coexistence of multiple orders in some metal-organic frameworks make them a unique family of multiferroics. This pap...
04/01/2020
Multiferroic and thermal expansion properties of metal-organic frameworks

The coexistence of multiple orders in some metal-organic frameworks make them a unique family of multiferroics. This paper presents an overview of recent progress and future perspective on multiferroic metal-organic frameworks.

Chinese Academy of Sciences

As a prototype of organic–inorganic hybrid compounds, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted enormous interest for their diverse physical and chemical properties. Recently, the magnetic and...

AIP Publishing
04/01/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

A comprehensive study reveals the structural requirements for achieving bright and stable green light-emitting quantum dots that exhibit suppressed blinking or photobleaching.

AIP Publishing
04/01/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

By adding an engineered second phase to a shape-memory alloy, a 200% increase in the phase transformation temperature can be obtained.

Stabilized a-Se photoconductors are used in the majority of flat panel imaging detectors in mammography. This paper is a...
03/31/2020
Effects of x-ray irradiation on charge transport and charge collection efficiency in stabilized a-Se photoconductors

Stabilized a-Se photoconductors are used in the majority of flat panel imaging detectors in mammography. This paper is a comprehensive study of the effects of x-ray pre-irradiation on charge transport and collection efficiency.

University of Saskatchewan

Stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductive layers are currently used in the majority of modern digital x-ray flat panel imaging detectors in mammography. We examine the effects of pre-exp...

AIP Publishing
03/31/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

An article in fluids and soft matter from the Journal of Applied Physics.

AIP Publishing
03/31/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that ignition temperature depends on grain size and grain boundary structure in combustible Ni/Al nanolaminates.

AIP Publishing
03/31/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Partially replacing toxic lead with tin up to 33% results in better crystallinity and reduced bandgap in this perovskite material.

Hyperbolic metamaterials: From dispersion manipulation to applications offers a valuable tutorial introduction into the ...
03/30/2020
Hyperbolic metamaterials: From dispersion manipulation to applications

Hyperbolic metamaterials: From dispersion manipulation to applications offers a valuable tutorial introduction into the field of hyperbolic metamaterials with unusual properties.

Manipulating the properties of the isofrequency contours (IFCs) of materials provides a powerful means of controlling the interaction between light and matter. Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), an i...

An overview on wearable devices built of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides is provided, followed by a focus on materia...
03/27/2020
2D group 6 transition metal dichalcogenides toward wearable electronics and optoelectronics

An overview on wearable devices built of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides is provided, followed by a focus on material synthesis, domain engineering, device structure engineering, etc.

Sun Yat-sen University - SYSU 中山大学

Wearable electronic and optoelectronic devices accommodable to various mechanical deformations are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in various realms spanning electronic skins, electronic eyes, int...

AIP Publishing
03/26/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

An article from the Journal of Applied Physics' Special Topic: Advanced Thermoelectrics.

Defects are tremendous possibilities. Controlled defects are useful for memory and neuromorphic computing. Entropy chang...
03/26/2020
Engineering of defects in resistive random access memory devices

Defects are tremendous possibilities. Controlled defects are useful for memory and neuromorphic computing. Entropy change driven by uncontrolled defects is useful in hardware security.

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Defects are essential to switch the resistance states in resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices. Controlled defects in such devices can lead to the stabilization of the switching performance...

How can geometry, friction and flexibility be utilized to tune a disordered packing for mechanical performance? Bird nes...
03/25/2020
Mechanics of randomly packed filaments—The “bird nest” as meta-material

How can geometry, friction and flexibility be utilized to tune a disordered packing for mechanical performance? Bird nests offer inspiration and insight.

The University of Akron
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Systems of randomly packed, macroscopic elements, from jammed spherical grains to tangled long filaments, represent a broad class of disordered meta-materials with a wide range of applications and ...

AIP Publishing
03/20/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Obtaining the electron energy distribution function in the low energy region of low pressure plasmas is a difficult problem. A Langmuir probe with alternating current may be the solution.

AIP Publishing
03/18/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Tuning of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in iron garnets is used to create trilayer valve structures.

AIP Publishing
03/18/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics' Special Topic: Advanced Thermoelectrics.

AIP Publishing
03/16/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

A two-wave structure is observed, indicating a simultaneous mixture of reactants and products when polysulfone is shocked to pressures within its reactants-to-products transition region.

AIP Publishing
03/12/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Researchers find biological short- and long-term memory mechanisms can be imitated in neural networks using precise engineering of magnetic tunnel junction stacks.

AIP Publishing
03/11/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics' Special Topic: Advanced Thermoelectrics.

AIP Publishing
03/06/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's Special Topic: Advanced Thermoelectrics!

AIP Publishing
03/04/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics' Special Topic: Highly Mismatched Semiconductors Alloys: from Atoms to Devices!

AIP Publishing
03/04/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Model analyzing the properties of a regenerative cooling device using any caloric material may lead to the optimization of such devices.

AIP Publishing
02/27/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Using images of the primary neutron signals, researchers were able to determine the deuterium-tritium fuel density distribution during fusion ignition – an important step for optimizing fusion processes.

AIP Publishing
02/27/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics' Special Topic: Highly Mismatched Semiconductors Alloys: from Atoms to Devices.

AIP Publishing
02/24/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's new Special Topic: Highly Mismatched Semiconductors Alloys: from Atoms to Devices!

Near ultraviolet thermoreflectance imaging and electro-thermal modeling were used to highlight the interplay of sub-cont...
02/20/2020
Nanoscale electro-thermal interactions in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

Near ultraviolet thermoreflectance imaging and electro-thermal modeling were used to highlight the interplay of sub-continuum scale heat generation and thermal transport within gallium nitride transistors.

Penn State
Boğaziçi Üniversitesi
Air Force Research Laboratory - AFRL
Sandia National Labs

Self-heating in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) negatively impacts device performance and reliability. Under nominal operating conditions, a hot-spot in the device channel deve...

AIP Publishing
02/19/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

A comparison of idealized and real pyramid textures in silicon solar cells demonstrates that a truly random pyramid texture improves light trapping efficiency.

AIP Publishing
02/18/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's Special Topic: Highly Mismatched Semiconductors Alloys: from Atoms to Devices.

A novel (√7x√3) CDW phase of monolayer TiS2 comes out by electron doping. The stable TiS2 is predicted to exhibit good p...
02/18/2020
Doping induced charge density wave in monolayer TiS2 and phonon-mediated superconductivity

A novel (√7x√3) CDW phase of monolayer TiS2 comes out by electron doping. The stable TiS2 is predicted to exhibit good phonon-mediated superconductivity, which can be further enhanced by strain.

South China University of Technology
The University of Hong Kong - HKU - 香港大學

Using the first-principles calculations, we have investigated the effects of the charge doping and biaxial strain on the charge density wave (CDW) of monolayer octahedral titanium disulfide (1T-TiS...

We show how multiple electro-optical measurements on OLEDs can be fitted with device simulations. Such a fit allows a re...
02/17/2020
Combining steady-state with frequency and time domain data to quantitatively analyze charge transport in organic light-emitting diodes

We show how multiple electro-optical measurements on OLEDs can be fitted with device simulations. Such a fit allows a reliable extraction of device parameters and to improve the device by analyzing e.g. the recombination profile.

Typically, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are characterized only in steady-state to determine and optimize their efficiency. Adding further electro-optical measurement techniques in frequenc...

Significant dislocation reduction in highly uniform GaN rod arrays targeting electronic devices is achieved using a top-...
02/12/2020
Reduction of threading dislocation density in top-down fabricated GaN nanocolumns via their lateral overgrowth by MOCVD

Significant dislocation reduction in highly uniform GaN rod arrays targeting electronic devices is achieved using a top-down etch process followed by rod shrinkage, anneal and lateral overgrowth.

QUB - School of Mathematics and Physics
IIT Engineering

Reduction of threading dislocation density in top-down fabricated GaN nanocolumns (NCs) via their successive lateral shrinkage by anisotropic wet etch and lateral overgrowth by metalorganic chemica...

AIP Publishing
02/10/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's new Special Topic: Highly Mismatched Semiconductors Alloys: from Atoms to Devices!

AIP Publishing
02/04/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's Special Topic: Ultra-Hard Materials!

AIP Publishing
01/29/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's Special Topic: Ultra-Hard Materials!

A comprehensive review of the physical mechanisms of EBIC imaging in semiconductor devices is used to draw insights into...
01/27/2020
Understanding and optimizing EBIC pn-junction characterization from modeling insights

A comprehensive review of the physical mechanisms of EBIC imaging in semiconductor devices is used to draw insights into accelerating voltage and surface effects. Low kV and high SRV are shown key to improve EBIC lateral resolution.

University of Oxford
UNSW

In this paper, the physical mechanisms involved in electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) imaging of semiconductor pn-junctions are reviewed to propose a model and optimize the acquisition of experim...

AIP Publishing
01/27/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Read from the Journal of Applied Physics's new Special Topic: Ultra-Hard Materials!

AIP Publishing
01/24/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Time-domain thermoreflectance reveals two distinct regions of thermal conductivity degradation in sapphire after irradiation with swift heavy ions.

AIP Publishing
01/23/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

Time-domain thermoreflectance reveals two distinct regions of thermal conductivity degradation in sapphire after irradiation with swift heavy ions.

AIP Publishing
01/21/2020
AIP Publishing

AIP Publishing

One of the most read articles from Journal of Applied Physics in 2019.

V-pits in the semiconductor material GaN on Si are crystalline defects that are shown to be responsible for a premature ...
01/16/2020
Vertical breakdown of GaN on Si due to V-pits

V-pits in the semiconductor material GaN on Si are crystalline defects that are shown to be responsible for a premature electrical device breakdown due to the promotion of local oxygen incorporation.

Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory - NRL

Gallium nitride on silicon (GaN/Si) is an important technological approach for power electronic devices exhibiting superior performance compared to devices based on a pure silicon technology. Howev...

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THEORY OF INFINITE RELATIVITY OF THE UNIVERSE Dr.Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is advanced and widely pplicable. The difference between Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity is mainly that General Relativity throws light on the gravity force with reference to four dimensional space time curvatures and Special Relativity says all laws of physics are same in all inertial fames. Both have been tested successfully, making Dr.Einstein, a world famous scientist. He was awarded Nobel Prize for discovery of photoelectric effect law. Theory of Relativity is the foundation for all that exists. Action and reaction concerns relativity with something for specific results. Scientific formulas are as per applications but bearing relativity. Discoveries in the universe as a whole would depend upon relativity angle. E=mc2 (equivalence of mass and energy) relates to earth conditions response which would be in variance from object to object. Discoveries on the earth are specific. On the universal perspective, science would have to be even beyond mathematics, observation, analysis, experiments as there may be an anomaly of illusions in the auto run of the operation. To relate the earth with the universal phenomenon is needed to find out its basic rules for governance of the infinite space, time and matter. Whether it is the earth, moon, sun as well as objects elsewhere, both visible and invisible, the equilibrium is an intelligent auto operation. Space, time, matter are the principal elements as so far advanced. But it seems that inherent sensing with sound and speed (velocity) is on auto mode which does not require any activation but mere friction. Space and time too have mass for respective functions. Mass in everything moves on auto parade and energy cycle rides with no beginning or end barrier as it is natural and stands tall. With this thread living elsewhere cannot be denied and perhaps living mode that may be perfect with some alternative branches, resting on prevailing environment conditions. The universe is on automatic wheels in that mass moves with inherent velocity and synchronization are based on similar element characteristics, spreading into different objects. At this point gravitation and anti-gravitation are the platforms for the balanced, splendid grandeur state of the universe. Space, matter, time are supports for sensing and sound with attraction and repulsion modes in segregation of similar value mass ingredients. Similarity attracts likes and repulses the others. Gravitation has an angle for each object (depending upon weight, speed, area occupied etc.). In between objects, distances change keeping in view the ageing factor. Ageing is resultant factor of wear and tear, thus reducing the gravitation and overpowering of anti-gravitation, and further getting into space wave absorption. Again process of development continues on similarities. The universe eyes the past, present and future as illusion as conversion is the soul. Nothing is permanent except mass movement. 2 Due to ageing of objects, the number will be on the reduction, tied with others. The atlas (map) of the universe expands and contracts as per necessity. Space, time and matter coupled with sensing and sound, velocity (tied together) are on constant travel with similarities for placements as objects or waves. Objects to waves and vice versa process are in the transit route. So atomic sub particles lead to unified common law. Interestingly wave mass is out of ageing of all conditions, later fixing in other formations. The universal law is in waves movement and it is the same for entire physics, both theoretical and construction law. Finally all around (visible and invisible) come under physics with waves relativity. Unless relativity steps in, nothing can be seen, observed and experimented. So discoveries on the earth planet and elsewhere by nature or human beings come under the relativity range.’ Relativity’ word coined by Dr.Einstein may be applicable to everything in both theoretical and construction concepts with illusions for the universal scenario. Universe is matter in any form and movement is the law. Universal wave energy cycle of entry-exit-entry is on auto basis of similarities, acting on gravitation and anti-gravitation for conversion. Now to begin with to overcome scarcity of water, electricity, fresh air in particular for welfare rests on waves study and locating relevant atomic sub particles. The illusion turning into reality and vice versa of similarities is the setup of the infinite universe. And this is the Theory of Infinite Relativity of the universe. The Theory of Infinite Relativity of the Universe may be an extension under one cover, perhaps termed in word ‘Similarity’ to connect the relativity of the earth conditions with the auto run of the total universe. H V Navangul Age 84
‘HARMONY’ ATOMIC PARTICLE THE ULTIMATE IS UNIVERSAL TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT AND AVOID NATURAL CRISISES The discovery indicates that after a big bang, God particle (Higgs Boson) surfaced from which atoms developed for the creation of the universe. In fact the birth of the universe (from zero point) is assumed from the big bang. If this zero is taken as the birth, a question arises; the zero always is obtained by minus something .Then the zero point of universal birth is not net zero and something as balanced factor existed before the presumed universal starting point of the big bang. Looking to the splendid, harmonious and balanced function of the universal frame, before its birth, from the split unknown field, Harmony atom got into operation which is exclusive. So the order of operation could be Harmony Particle, God Particle followed by other atoms. Harmony stands before everything and getting associated with the later development. Something also existed earlier than the big bang and it will be unknown forever. Hence the life of the universe is infinite (because of unconfirmed beginning and end). In view of infinite universal scenario, a series of bangs may have happened instead of just a big bang theory. All over natural calamities in the shape of hurricanes, tsunami, floods, earthquakes etc. are debated but without fixed solutions to prevent such occurring. Laws of the nature control the universe and unless its functioning is understood, it is difficult to move on to concrete remedies. Universal laws may be infinite looking to its unimaginable coverage. Just like on foundation only building stands; likewise some basic parameter must be behind the universal induction. Atoms play important role; classification thereof is on, to mention a few protons, electrons, neutrons, God particle etc. An endless list of atomic sub particles may be on the map and it is beyond imagination to know everything. The basic is atomic strength in the form of sub particles encompassing the sprawling universe, defined as space, time and matter. In fact like matter carries mass, space and time, though abstract possess mass and function as a team of these three foundation features. Matter has both gravitation and anti-gravitation. To control or avoid natural crisis situations, the following may be thought of: + Space, time, matter contain mass for coordinated function. + Without communication, the balanced universal run is impossible. So the universal sound language is on in the form of existence of all elements. Sound language is by waving flag of atomic sub particles waves. + During natural crisis, sounds transmit through various outlets like lightening, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fire etc. When conditions are normal, the sound of the nature is pleasant and low. + Sole energy is in objects, space and time too. In nonliving the soul energy exists but needs external support for activation; so static. In living soul energy is self-activated; but surprisingly 2 speaking and other physical activities, energy mode is without mass. Generally the energy is out mass and vice versa (E=mc2). + The energy is not out of mass alone, but it is a combined result of space, time and matter bearing mass content proportionately for respective functions. +Atomic particles are infinite and present all over, out of their application by the nature and human beings, resource results are obtained. +Besides classified atoms known or unknown, some basic governing (Harmony) particle must be at the back of the universe. Once its format is analyzed, many riddles will be solved. +Innovations are welcome for welfare in natural way. Natural comforts should be encouraged to avoid pollution. No pollution is the real pollution free environment. To sum up all that exists bear soul energy. Universal language is its sound and technology too, perfect in balance and harmony. In atoms exist properties to prevent crisis out of imbalance in the natural way. Perfect analysis of this property can be diffused for our benefit to deal with calamities as the principle is hidden in E=mc2 that even a tiny matter creates enormous energy. Imbalance on the earth is due to environment- disturbances through various disturbing activities, causing change in shape, size, weight, rotation speed etc. as well as gravitation and ageing. The earth is just like a big aero plane, rotating safely without letting off any body. Without proper environment care, it may become like a scratched ball and would start wobbling and worsen conditions, pointing towards unforeseen events beyond control. So only solution to prevent natural crises lies in environment care and locating crisis preventing atomic particles. Disposal of waste causing further pollution will be available in the universal system of black holes incineration know how and thus attaining the goal of keeping the pollution at rest. Sensing universal sound language is necessary to get signals for favourable and unfavourable situations. This is a vital operation for which Alert Environment Sensing Universities need to be established exclusively. The earth in particular and the universe in general termed as nature do have sole energy. Scientific equations stand only response from the natural elements. If the nature itself is imbalanced then its response to science would automatically not be as per innovated formulas. Thus the nature will challenge the science. Any disturbances elsewhere (besides the earth) would have insignificant impact on the earth. So to stand on science to live comfortably 3 rests totally on undisturbed nature by complete protection of the earth. To defeat the nature is just impossible. So perhaps through the universal sound language and laws, locating atomic sub particles which would help in tackling calamities would be the answer. The nature is the energy and energy is the nature. Holding the secret of universal harmony laws rests on entry-exit-entry cycle which will be never known; but the nature will not pose problems provided its laws are strictly followed by preserving the pollution free environment; which is within the reach on the earth planet and resources. Main preventive crisis situation atomic particle study in specific atoms is necessary. Also exclusively harmony atoms need to be searched for effective application. All the atomic strength is a part of universal laws and can be traced through exclusive sound language waves. Here there is a clue. For locating anti-crisis atoms, the best period is when the nature acts in its own rhythm for bringing back normalcy after calamities and also the period of human efforts combating calamities. H V Navangul Age 84