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The Marshall Project

The Marshall Project The Marshall Project is a nonprofit news organization covering America’s criminal justice system. Why The "Marshall" Project? Thurgood Marshall is an American hero.

His work as a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, including the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education decision, laid the groundwork for the modern U.S. civil rights movement. As the first African-American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he was a persuasive advocate for a living and breathing Constitution that sees beyond the prejudices of revolutionary America. If Marshall were alive, I ha

His work as a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, including the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education decision, laid the groundwork for the modern U.S. civil rights movement. As the first African-American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he was a persuasive advocate for a living and breathing Constitution that sees beyond the prejudices of revolutionary America. If Marshall were alive, I ha

Operating as usual

"Being Native gives me the strength to overcome all of this — not just for me, but for all our brothers and sisters," sa...
03/20/2022
California’s Longest Serving Death-Row Prisoner On Pain, Survival and Native Identity

"Being Native gives me the strength to overcome all of this — not just for me, but for all our brothers and sisters," says Douglas Ray Stankewitz, who has spent 43 years in San Quentin State Prison for a crime he says he didn’t commit.

Read the latest from our Life Inside series, a weekly series of first-person essays from people who live or work in the criminal justice system.

As the Monache and Cherokee 63-year-old awaits a new hearing for a 1978 murder he denies committing, Douglas Ray Stankewitz shares the cultural tools and memories he depends on to stay alive.

Interrogating Melissa Lucio for her child's death, a Texas Ranger claimed her passive behavior suggested she was guilty ...
03/20/2022

Interrogating Melissa Lucio for her child's death, a Texas Ranger claimed her passive behavior suggested she was guilty and ready to confess. The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear her case, and Lucio is scheduled to be executed in April: https://trib.al/5ZRgzze

It’s not uncommon in America—whether you’ve been incarcerated or not—to lack access to a dentist. But dental problems ca...
03/20/2022
Another Hurdle For Former Inmates: Their Teeth

It’s not uncommon in America—whether you’ve been incarcerated or not—to lack access to a dentist. But dental problems can exacerbate daunting challenges for people leaving prisons and jails. Here's how:

For many recently-released prisoners, severe dental issues are just one more barrier to restarting their lives.

"Where has our humanity gone? Why do we care so little about people being sent to prison for their entire human lives, a...
03/19/2022
Jury Duty Changed My Life Forever

"Where has our humanity gone? Why do we care so little about people being sent to prison for their entire human lives, and what happens to them?" writes a former juror.

“I felt an overwhelming sense of injustice. How did this happen?”

“These kids were in their cells with no beds on a concrete floor with a state-issued green mattress — flame retardant — ...
03/19/2022
Teens Escaped This Harsh Lockup By Digging Holes in Cell Walls

“These kids were in their cells with no beds on a concrete floor with a state-issued green mattress — flame retardant — a blanket and a sheet and nothing else. No light. No nothing,” a former staffer said.

Youths in one Louisiana facility were held in solitary confinement around the clock, shackled with leg irons and deprived of an education. “This is child abuse,” one expert said.

"Being Native gives me the strength to overcome all of this — not just for me, but for all our brothers and sisters," sa...
03/18/2022
California’s Longest Serving Death-Row Prisoner On Pain, Survival and Native Identity

"Being Native gives me the strength to overcome all of this — not just for me, but for all our brothers and sisters," says Douglas Ray Stankewitz. "Society cannot break our spirit." Read our latest Life Inside, published with Indian Country Today:

As the Monache and Cherokee 63-year-old awaits a new hearing for a 1978 murder he denies committing, Douglas Ray Stankewitz shares the cultural tools and memories he depends on to stay alive.

“Every other country in the developed world and even some dictatorships allow international inspectors into their prison...
03/17/2022
Do Texas Prison Conditions Violate Human Rights Standards? One Scottish Court Says Yes

“Every other country in the developed world and even some dictatorships allow international inspectors into their prison systems to monitor them for conditions,” an Edinburgh-based lawyer says. “That is a completely alien concept in America.”

Tiny cells, lacking medical treatment and sweltering conditions cited by judge who blocked extradition.

"I even asked prison officials if there was someone who could teach me braille as a way of opening my world back up," wr...
03/17/2022
My Life as a Blind Man in Prison

"I even asked prison officials if there was someone who could teach me braille as a way of opening my world back up," writes Burl Washington, whose eyesight began to fade in prison. "They politely said no."

A prisoner’s world becomes even smaller.

There was a time in Raeford Davis’ life when the idea of putting on a police uniform and a badge brought him joy. But th...
03/17/2022
Why I Hated Being a Cop

There was a time in Raeford Davis’ life when the idea of putting on a police uniform and a badge brought him joy. But the moral conflict ate away at him.

Moral conflicts at every turn.

At this academy, sponsored by the University of Tennessee, crime scene investigators learn to dowse for the dead. It’s n...
03/17/2022
"Witching" To Find Corpses? This Police Training Alarms Experts.

At this academy, sponsored by the University of Tennessee, crime scene investigators learn to dowse for the dead. It’s not backed by science.

Published in partnership with Mother Jones:

At the National Forensic Academy, crime scene investigators learn to dowse for the dead, though it’s not backed by science.

“Our mission — to publish top-quality journalism that has an impact on the criminal justice system — can only be realize...
03/16/2022
The Marshall Project Expands Development Team With Two New Hires

“Our mission — to publish top-quality journalism that has an impact on the criminal justice system — can only be realized if our newsroom has the resources it needs. Elizabeth and Chavon are the right people to help make that happen,” says Carroll Bogert, president of The Marshall Project. Meet Elizabeth Seuling and Chavon Carroll:

Elizabeth Seuling will lead development team; Chavon Carroll will lead local fundraising.

Rahsaan Thomas has long fought to change the way outside media describe people in prison. One of his toughest crowds? Hi...
03/15/2022
How I Convinced My Incarcerated Peers to Make Language a Priority

Rahsaan Thomas has long fought to change the way outside media describe people in prison. One of his toughest crowds? His fellow reporters.

Rahsaan Thomas, an imprisoned journalist, has long fought to change the way outside media describe people in prison. One of his toughest crowds? His fellow reporters.

We're seeking reporters for our Cleveland news team: Staff Writer, Staff Reporter and Engagement Reporter💵 Minimum: $70k...
03/15/2022
Employment Opportunities

We're seeking reporters for our Cleveland news team: Staff Writer, Staff Reporter and Engagement Reporter
💵 Minimum: $70k-$85k / year
🌴 17 days + Dec. 24-Jan. 2
📆 Deadline: April 1
See more details & apply:

The Marshall Project is a nonprofit news organization covering the U.S. criminal justice system.

Our magazine distributed in U.S. jails and prisons will publish a new issue later this month. Have an incarcerated loved...
03/15/2022

Our magazine distributed in U.S. jails and prisons will publish a new issue later this month. Have an incarcerated loved one? We'll send it to them for free — if you fill out this form: https://trib.al/fveBy4E

Voter advocates say the low registration numbers for formerly incarcerated people reflect more than apathy and political...
03/15/2022
Millions of People With Felonies Can Now Vote. Most Don’t Know It.

Voter advocates say the low registration numbers for formerly incarcerated people reflect more than apathy and political alienation. Most don’t even know they now have the right to vote.

In a handful of key states, no more than 1 in 4 formerly incarcerated people registered in time for the 2020 election, a Marshall Project analysis found.

A few years ago, we partnered with Slate.com to conduct the first-of-its-kind political survey inside U.S. prisons and j...
03/14/2022
We Asked 8,000 Incarcerated People What They Think About Politics

A few years ago, we partnered with Slate.com to conduct the first-of-its-kind political survey inside U.S. prisons and jails. Here's what we learned:

This first-of-its kind survey polled prisoners on political parties, criminal justice reform and which presidential candidate they’d support.

At this facility, teens were locked alone for ~23 hours a day for weeks. Some used metal shards, from broken beds and li...
03/13/2022

At this facility, teens were locked alone for ~23 hours a day for weeks. Some used metal shards, from broken beds and light fixtures, to hack holes in their walls. People on the outside had no idea how bad it was. Read our report: https://trib.al/w4Wc7ke

By recording each story and noting every death for five years, we could show how the machinery of capital punishment qui...
03/12/2022
What 120 Executions Tell Us About Criminal Justice in America

By recording each story and noting every death for five years, we could show how the machinery of capital punishment quietly grinds forward while few are watching. Here's what we learned:

The Marshall Project tracked every ex*****on in America for more than five years. For condemned people, the path to death grew longer, more winding and erratic.

Interrogating #MelissaLucio for her child's death, a Texas Ranger claimed her passive behavior suggested she was guilty ...
03/12/2022

Interrogating #MelissaLucio for her child's death, a Texas Ranger claimed her passive behavior suggested she was guilty and ready to confess. The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear her case, and Lucio is scheduled to be executed in April: https://trib.al/grOUqQI

Ever since I reunited with my daughter a year ago, it’s been like a dream, writes Demetrius Buckley. But I’m also learni...
03/11/2022
The Powerlessness of Parenting From Prison

Ever since I reunited with my daughter a year ago, it’s been like a dream, writes Demetrius Buckley. But I’m also learning things about her that require me to be even more present. That’s difficult to do while serving time.

Demetrius Buckley thought his bond with his 11-year-old daughter was strong. But when he couldn’t physically protect his child from adult problems, he learned the limits of parenting via prison pho...

Louisiana quietly opened a high-security lockup last year to regain control of the most troubled teens in its care. Inst...
03/10/2022
“No Light. No Nothing.” Inside Louisiana’s Harshest Juvenile Lockup

Louisiana quietly opened a high-security lockup last year to regain control of the most troubled teens in its care. Instead, officials created a powder keg, our investigation with ProPublica and NBC News reveals.

Teens at the Acadiana Center for Youth at St. Martinville were held in solitary confinement around the clock, shackled with leg irons and deprived of an education. “This is child abuse,” one expert...

"Of course not everyone means harm when they use prison labels," writes Lisette Bamenga. "But that doesn’t make the lang...
03/08/2022
Good Intentions Don’t Blunt the Impact of Dehumanizing Words

"Of course not everyone means harm when they use prison labels," writes Lisette Bamenga. "But that doesn’t make the language any less damaging."

Of course not everyone means harm when they use prison labels. But that doesn’t make the language any less damaging.

If you watched the latest Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, you don't want to miss our reporter Maurice Chammah in con...
03/08/2022

If you watched the latest Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, you don't want to miss our reporter Maurice Chammah in conversation with The 19th News' Niketa Patel on Twitter Spaces. If you have a Twitter account, you can set a reminder, or just visit this link at 3 p.m. ET Wednesday: https://trib.al/VqRB9C8

"In music, the strong emotions of my inner world come out. I feel lighter, not tight and anxious and depressed like I di...
03/08/2022
Learning Violin Helped Me Survive Prison

"In music, the strong emotions of my inner world come out. I feel lighter, not tight and anxious and depressed like I did before. I feel closer to the true me," Jason Naradzay wrote in 2018.

How one former inmate found healing—and himself—through music.

In April, Texas plans to put Melissa Lucio to death for her daughter’s murder. Her lawyers argue her conviction rests up...
03/07/2022
How Melissa Lucio Went From Abuse Survivor to Death Row

In April, Texas plans to put Melissa Lucio to death for her daughter’s murder. Her lawyers argue her conviction rests upon a false confession and faulty science. Her family, the Innocence Project and a documentary director hope for her life to be spared.

Why some trauma victims are more likely to take responsibility for crimes, even when they may be innocent.

Mainstream media is less likely to cover Black homicide victims and less likely to portray them as complex human beings,...
03/06/2022
When Does Murder Make The News? It Depends On The Victim’s Race.

Mainstream media is less likely to cover Black homicide victims and less likely to portray them as complex human beings, a study shows.

Mainstream media is less likely to cover Black homicide victims and less likely to portray them as complex human beings, a new study shows.

What kinds of coverage on the criminal justice system do you seek, and in what forms? Let us know in our brief survey. (...
03/06/2022

What kinds of coverage on the criminal justice system do you seek, and in what forms? Let us know in our brief survey. (Just a few minutes, promise!) ➡️ https://trib.al/EuOHHVf

Along with creating separate 911 response teams, activists have called for reinvesting police funds in community organiz...
03/05/2022
When Going to the Hospital Is Just as Bad as Jail

Along with creating separate 911 response teams, activists have called for reinvesting police funds in community organizations to support people with mental illness — long before they’re in crisis, being shot at or pinned to the pavement by police.

A new lawsuit claims Black Americans with mental illness are being forced into traumatic emergency room stays.

Forensic psychologist Lenore Walker, who published "The Battered Woman" study, has noticed that sometimes women face har...
03/05/2022

Forensic psychologist Lenore Walker, who published "The Battered Woman" study, has noticed that sometimes women face harsher sentences for deaths of children. She points to stereotypes: https://trib.al/EHa8ehJ

Knowing how and why you read and share our journalism helps us continually improve. Please fill out our brief survey: ht...
03/05/2022

Knowing how and why you read and share our journalism helps us continually improve. Please fill out our brief survey: https://trib.al/lkDlvjs

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I am nearly done reading Badges Without Borders: How Global Counterinsurgency Transformed American Policing by Stuart Schrader. One of numerous issues addressed is the number of police killings of US residents. I learned police killed an average of 245 people annually from 1950 to 1967 and an average of 359 per year from 1967 to 1973. During these decades 50% of the people killed were Black. Fast forward to the second decade of the 21st century. Well over a thousand police killings each and every year. People of color, especially Black men, are at higher risk than white men. I recommend the book and wanted to share these facts for historical background/context. Just like incarceration, police killings have increased to the extent that this country is no longer the land of the free.
Please consider investigating this case of injustice. Thank you.
Thanks for your wonderful reporting. It makes the world more compassionate.
Would you be willing to please post this for me? These are the words that I have prepared for SCOTUS to deal with the disgusting practice of enslaving people to generate revenue, disguised as justice. We will be bringing the case forward any day and Invoking Article III requiring that the Court actually see the case, due to the jurisdictional error created by the USDC. additional information is available on my page. These words mean a lot to me and I want people to know in advance what I am doing and why I am doing it. Thank you so much, Blessings to you and yours! This is the argument submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court that is going to end the disgusting practice of enslaving people. If you followed the Barret confirmation, you will recognize much of what is being discussed, particularly between Rule of Law and Legal Realism. If you want to know the Truth.... here it is. Be informed, know what’s at stake, stop listening to liars. The People make the laws, not judges. Judges make rulings; People make laws, ruling do not change laws. If in the opinion of the People of the United States, any of the provisions or guarantees of the United States Constitution be in any particular way wrong, let it be corrected by an Amendment in the way in which the Constitution so designates. Until, if and when that time comes, every single United States Citizen is entitled to every single right secured by the U.S. Constitution. ORAL ARGUMENT: The great philosopher Nietzsche once said, “Those who fight monsters should see to it that in the process they don’t become a monster.” There are two vastly opposing legal doctrines at work in America at this time. Our system of government is founded upon the “Government of Laws” doctrine, which is Constitutionally based. It is built upon the theory that in order for laws to be legitimate, they must be considered just and equal. This is the egalitarianism approach, which our Constitution is framed upon. In order for all men to be equal, government and laws must first treat them equal. This is the way that our system is designed to work, based upon a fixed set of laws or principles in which the courts and people adhere to and to which every United States Citizen is accustomed to. The opposite of the Government of Laws doctrine is the “Legal Realism” doctrine, which is very much alive and at work here in America destroying our system of government and infringing on the rights of the People. Legal Realism of course is the theory that law is not based upon a formal set of rules or principles, but instead upon judicial decisions deriving from their own social, political or public policy. This is not Constitutionally based, as it does not permit the fair and equal treatment of people. An excellent example of Legal Realism is the belief that a judge made ruling, such as Hurtado v. California (1887), can alter the provisions or guarantees of the United States Constitution. When one attempts to combat the doctrine of Legal Realism, they often times utilize horrible judicial decisions, such as Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), where the United States Supreme Court Chief Justice Taney stated in his assenting opinion that, “Blacks are not and were not intended to be included under the word ‘Citizen’ in the Constitution. Blacks are so far inferior that they have no rights which the white man was bound to respect. Slaves are private property protected by the Constitution.” I don’t think that any United States Citizen today can help but feel shame and anger at those horrible words spoken by the highest member of the highest court of the land. There is no doubt that decision came at a time of great conflict for our nation and clearly biased in sympathy of the South. The alteration of the Constitution in order to perpetuate slavery is not approved by God and should never be supported by good men. What has happened has happened, but to deny it would be a greater travesty. You see, a slave based system cherishes ignorance because that is the only security for its oppression. Slavery is the mortal antagonist to our democratic institution. Truth is the only thing in which people can be certain of, but truth doesn’t cease to be truth simply because no one has the courage to speak up to defend it or because someone else disagrees with it. Truth is never dependent upon the consensus of opinion. If a thousand people believe something to be foolish, yet one person know it to be true, it is still true. Truth can never be made a lie anymore that a lie can be made truth. The truth is that slavery by any other name is still slavery. Simply re-titling it “Justice” doesn’t make it any less appalling. Changing it from a private institution to a state-run institution doesn’t make it any more Constitutionally acceptable. It is still slavery and it is still a horrible injustice and wrong against humanity, regardless of what you call it or how you disguise it. While we are on the topic of truth, let’s produce some more truth. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, there were eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who all assented to the opinion that, “Blacks are not people and therefore, not entitled to the protection of the United States Constitution” and “Blacks are so far inferior that they have no rights which the white man was bound to follow.” In this case, there was one single, brave, Supreme Court Justice who dissented with the rest stating, “Our Constitution is color-blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect to civil rights, all citizens are equal before the Law.” This brave patriot was Justice John Marshall Harlan and this wasn’t the only time that he found himself as the lone dissenter against every other Justice on the United States Supreme Court. One other such instance was in the case of Hurtado v. California. You see, the truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Slaves are private property protected by the Constitution,” also said that United States Citizens are not protected by the provisions and guarantees of the 5th Amendment. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are not people,” also said that the United States Constitution is not the supreme Law of the Land and does not enjoy legal superiority over conflicting provisions with state constitutions. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are far inferior to the white man,” also said that geographical discriminations are acceptable under our Constitution of government. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are not and where not intended to be ‘Citizens’ in the Constitution,” also said that states have the right to abridge the privileges and immunities of United States Citizens. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who allowed their political interests for the advancement of an industry to cloud their good judgment also put into practice a ruling intended to advance that industry under a different name, overstepping the Separation of Powers and legislating from the bench, in violation of the United States Constitution and the Oaths of the Offices for which they serve. George Washington voiced his concern about geographical discriminations in his farewell address, whereby he stated, "In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union, it occurs as a matter of serious concern, that any ground have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views.” Foreseeing the potential for dissention here in America, Mr. Washington advised vigilance against, “The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.” The bonds which unite us as one people are: origin, language, belief and laws. These are the 4 great ties that hold our whole society together. The Constitution binds the American people to goals that are incompatible with slavery. President Abraham Lincoln said, “It has long been a grave question whether any government, not too strong for the liberties of its people, can be strong enough to maintain its own existence in great emergencies.” United States Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall echoed this sentiment when he said, “Grave threats to liberty come in times of urgency, when Constitutional rights seem too extravagant to endure.” The strongest bond which holds our nation together is the faith in the laws between us. This is not the United States of California, or the United States of Washington. I didn’t serve my country in the military fighting for Texas or Alabama, I was defending America, as I am now and as I will continue until such time as God or death has relieved me of my obligation. It is time now for the courts to do the same. Here is some more truth. The truth is that United States Citizens are governed by the Laws of the United States. The truth is that United States Citizens are guaranteed the rights secured by the United States Constitution. The truth is that no person can be held to answer for an infamous crime without an indictment by a Grand Jury. The truth is that one brave Supreme Court Justice did the right thing and stood for American principles despite fierce opposition at a time of great peril and his sage wisdom can be trusted today. God bless Justice John Marshall Harlan. The truth is that United States Citizens can believe and have faith in the United States Constitution, because the truth can always be trusted to fight our battles; the truth can always defend itself, as long as there is someone with the courage to speak it. The role of government is to govern, but that role to govern must be fair. Government ceases to govern when it chooses to take sides; it is no longer governing, rather ruling. Every Citizen is entitled to fair and equal governing in the same way that every Citizen is entitled to the equal protection of laws. Thomas Jefferson voiced this to us when he said, “Bear in mind this sacred principle, at though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, to which equal law must protect and to violate would be oppression.” To understand the rationale behind Article 3. Section 2. of the United States Constitution, which states, “In all Cases in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction,” we can turn to the author himself and the words that he published in “The Federalist Papers,” Circular Number 10, New York Packet, November 23, 1787, the article titled, “The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” In the article, James Madison stated, “No man is allowed to be judge in his own cause, because his interest would certainly bias his judgment and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity. With equal, nay, with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties at the same time.” States cannot be and were never intended to be, both judge and party in the same cause, because of the bias, prejudice and partiality which would ultimately transpire as a result of it. States cannot be both accuser and judge or else innocence will suffer. So in the same way and for the same reason why Tanawah M. Downing v. State of Washington (2019) in the current civil action is unconstitutional, so also is State of Washington v. Tanawah M. Downing (2017) in the original criminal action is unconstitutional. If 1+2=3 is unconstitutional, then obviously 2+1=3 is also unconstitutional, simply rearranging the order of the Parties, does not magically change the representation of the Parties. Article 3. Section 2. of the United States Constitution clearly states, “In all Cases in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.” As a result, both Tanawah M. Downing v. State of Washington and State of Washington v. Tanawah M. Downing are unconstitutional and therefore, illegal and the only court with jurisdictional authority to resolve both cases is the court which had jurisdictional authority in the cases to begin with, which is the United States Supreme Court, in accordance with the United States Constitution. Our forefathers who framed our Constitution were simple, yet wise men. They weren’t establishing complex principles or elaborate institutions to which only men of rich, or noble, or educated backgrounds could understand. You see, they were simply trying to create an accounting system which adequately and fairly reconciled the debt owed to society. If you choose to violate the law, you incur a DEBT that is OWED to society, to which you are CHARGED and called to ACCOUNT so that you may PAY the debt. These are all simple accounting terms. The way that debt normally works is, if I want to purchase something from a store, a bill will first be generated, which I sign and accept. Then my account is charged and I incur a debt, to which I then have to pay. This is a very simple method for transactions to which anyone can understand. However, if the store charges a person’s account without billing them first, that is called fraud. You must always bill before a charge is generated. How all of this applies to this case is that an indictment is called a “bill”. So absent an indictment, people are being charged fraudulently because they are not being billed first. Understanding this now, anyone who claims that a Bill of Indictment is not first needed before charging someone’s account, doesn’t understand that basic principles and practices of the system in which they are dealing with. As a result of this very basic, fundamental element of our nation’s legal accounting system being ignored, millions of United States Citizens have incurred illegal and fraudulent debt. America must address this accounting flaw in its legal system. In accordance with Rule 23 of the USCS Rules of Civil Procedure and in light of all the aforementioned evidence, as well as the supporting evidence, Petitioner asks the United States Supreme Court to authorize the application of the CLASS Action device in this Habeas Corpus proceeding. Included within Addendum 3, the Court will find the names of only a couple of the thousands of Petitioners who filed a Writ of Habeas Corpus pursuant to Title 28 USC §2254 between April 10, 2019 and September 2019 who’s cases raised the exact same allegations and were illegally and unconstitutionally dismissed by the United States District Court, despite the jurisdictional error and who are all now entitled to remanding of their cases to the United States Supreme Court for legal and Constitutionally acceptable adjudication. The last point that I would like to make is that, every single thing that I am advocating is consistent with God’s divine attributes: release of prisoners, return of exiled captives, love in lieu of hate, compassion and not condemnation, forgiveness instead of vengeance, equity and not tyranny. I know what side I am on, so ask yourself, if I fight for God and you fight against me, who is it that you are fighting for? Respectfully & Peacefully a Servant of Justice, Tanawah M. Downing Petitioner, Pro Se