The Marshall Project

The Marshall Project The Marshall Project is a nonprofit news organization covering America’s criminal justice system. Why The "Marshall" Project? Thurgood Marshall is an American hero.

His work as a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, including the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education decision, laid the groundwork for the modern U.S. civil rights movement. As the first African-American justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, he was a persuasive advocate for a living and breathing Constitution that sees beyond the prejudices of revolutionary America. If Marshall were alive, I have no doubt that he would place criminal justice reform high among the urgent priorities of today’s civil rights movement, and that his would be a powerful voice for change. It is for these reasons that I chose to name The Marshall Project in his honor. — Neil Barsky, founder of The Marshall Project

Operating as usual

“Sending someone to a prison without quality programs, mental health resources and opportunities to build skills is like...
06/13/2021
I Hate to Admit It, but Prison Is a Blessing in Disguise.

“Sending someone to a prison without quality programs, mental health resources and opportunities to build skills is like putting a child on punishment without giving them an explanation. When you let that child off of punishment, they will do the same thing because you didn’t give them the tools they needed to correct their behavior. So you punish them again.”
https://trib.al/qrHSjhO

Jy’Aire Smith-Pennick suffered multiple traumas before age 18. He masked his pain with Percocet, w**d and drug-selling. Now, at a Pennsylvania prison with the right programs, he’s finally starting to heal.

As of June 8, COVID-19 cases among incarcerated people reached 398,623. At least 2,702 prisoners have died. Federal pris...
06/12/2021
A State-by-State Look at Coronavirus in Prisons

As of June 8, COVID-19 cases among incarcerated people reached 398,623. At least 2,702 prisoners have died. Federal prison officials are still removing cases from their database, making a full accounting impossible.

Our updated tracker:
https://trib.al/AZ9tNDu

The Marshall Project is collecting data on COVID-19 infections in state and federal prisons. See how the virus has affected correctional facilities where you live.

The Marshall Project, al.com, IndyStar and Invisible Institute were awarded the 2021 Pulitzer Prize in National Reportin...
06/11/2021
The Marshall Project Wins The Pulitzer Prize

The Marshall Project, al.com, IndyStar and Invisible Institute were awarded the 2021 Pulitzer Prize in National Reporting for our investigation into the life-altering injuries caused by police dog bites. 🎉

Read the investigation: https://trib.al/mlOSR6M

“Mauled” is honored in the National Reporting category.

New: Prisons once promised small towns hundreds of jobs, money, and a boom in population. But in many places, these prom...
06/10/2021
Small Towns Used To See Prisons as a Boon. Now, Many Don’t Want Them.

New: Prisons once promised small towns hundreds of jobs, money, and a boom in population. But in many places, these promises never happened. Now, rural towns are realizing that prisons aren’t the jackpots once promised.

In its search for a new prison’s home, Nebraska finds few places willing to host.

A new eight-part docu-series about Larry Krasner, Philadelphia’s district attorney, sheds new light on how his reformist...
06/08/2021
“Philly D.A.”: Larry Krasner’s First Term, Under a Lens

A new eight-part docu-series about Larry Krasner, Philadelphia’s district attorney, sheds new light on how his reformist policies have met with resistance from virtually every corner of the city’s justice system.

A documentary examines the Philadelphia prosecutor’s efforts to bring about criminal justice reform — and the pushback he’s received along the way.

People with felonies — anything from a $10 drug conviction to capital murder — are banned from Tinder for life.Now Match...
05/28/2021
Does Banning People With Felonies From Dating Apps Actually Make Anyone Safer?

People with felonies — anything from a $10 drug conviction to capital murder — are banned from Tinder for life.

Now Match Group, which owns Tinder and a host of other dating sites, plans to launch a feature allowing daters to run background checks on potential matches. The company says its efforts are aimed at keeping users safe. But civil rights advocates say it will extend an unfair practice of imposing “collateral consequences” long after people have finished their sentences, and will disproportionately affect people of color without actually improving safety.

“It’s using the justice system as a barometer of someone’s worth.”

By May 25, at least 397,965 people in prison had tested positive for COVID-19, an increase of less than 1 percent from t...
05/28/2021
A State-by-State Look at Coronavirus in Prisons

By May 25, at least 397,965 people in prison had tested positive for COVID-19, an increase of less than 1 percent from the week before. At least 2,683 have died.

The Marshall Project is collecting data on COVID-19 infections in state and federal prisons. See how the virus has affected correctional facilities where you live.

Catch staff writer Joseph Neff on Democracy Now, discussing his investigation into police departments that hogtie people...
05/27/2021
Marcus Smith “Died Like an Animal” When Cops Hogtied Him. Police Have Known for Decades It Can Kill

Catch staff writer Joseph Neff on Democracy Now, discussing his investigation into police departments that hogtie people in their custody, despite knowing the risk of injury and death. https://trib.al/LaPZa3f

Despite decades of warnings against the practice, police departments across the country continue to hogtie people during arrests, sometimes with fatal results. On September 8, 2018, Marcus Smith, a 38-year-old homeless Black man in Greensboro, North Carolina, was facing a mental health crisis and as...

Marcus Smith died in 2018 after police hogtied him. Officers tied a strap around his ankles and attached it to his cuffe...
05/26/2021
“He Died Like an Animal”: Some Police Departments Hogtie People Despite Knowing The Risks

Marcus Smith died in 2018 after police hogtied him. Officers tied a strap around his ankles and attached it to his cuffed hands. On video, his last coherent words were “Help me.” Like George Floyd, an autopsy found, Smith was killed by positional asphyxia.

The U.S. Department of Justice in 1995 warned that people may die when police tie handcuffed wrists to bound ankles.

New: In fiscal year 2020, border encounters dropped by half while migrant rescues on the southern border hit a ten-year ...
05/26/2021
Strict Border Enforcement Policies Put Migrants in Harm’s Way. Title 42 Is No Exception.

New: In fiscal year 2020, border encounters dropped by half while migrant rescues on the southern border hit a ten-year high. Experts and humanitarian groups say Title 42, a policy invoked by former President Trump when COVID-19 hit that effectively closed the border, drives people to take more dangerous routes.

In fiscal year 2020, border encounters dropped by half while rescue rates doubled. Experts and humanitarian groups point to a Trump-era policy that continues today.

Across the country, ex*****ons are growing less frequent each year. But many of those facing ex*****on are terminally il...
05/26/2021
They Are Terminally Ill. States Want To Execute Them Anyway.

Across the country, ex*****ons are growing less frequent each year. But many of those facing ex*****on are terminally ill, or simply very old.

“I don’t understand trying to kill somebody who is already dying,” says the sister of Idaho death-row prisoner Gerald Pizzuto.

In collaboration with NPR, The Marshall Project investigated the practice of states collecting federal benefits — includ...
05/25/2021
These States Take Money Meant for Foster Children

In collaboration with NPR, The Marshall Project investigated the practice of states collecting federal benefits — including Social Security disability and survivors benefits — meant for foster children in their care. Our reporting shows that at least 49 states and Washington, D.C. take these benefits and put them into state coffers. https://trib.al/WrllNBT

Our reporting shows that in at least 49 states, plus Washington, D.C., foster care officials obtain federal benefits intended for children in their care.

Life-without-parole sentences are steadily replacing the death penalty across the United States. Almost 56,000 people na...
05/25/2021
Life Without Parole Is Replacing the Death Penalty — But the Legal Defense System Hasn’t Kept Up

Life-without-parole sentences are steadily replacing the death penalty across the United States. Almost 56,000 people nationwide are now serving sentences that will keep them locked up until they die, an increase of 66% since 2003.

But the country’s patchwork system of public defense hasn’t kept up. Only 11 states report having minimum qualifications for lawyers who represent impoverished people facing a lifetime behind bars. https://trib.al/5r5rGSx

Just ask a Dallas woman who spent a year in jail without talking to a lawyer.

Willette Benford was one of several incarcerated women who sued the Illinois corrections department for using mass strip...
05/25/2021
Cadets Violently Strip Searched Us As Part of Their Training. For My Pain, I Got a Measly $325.

Willette Benford was one of several incarcerated women who sued the Illinois corrections department for using mass strip searches to train cadets. For Life Inside, she writes about how a small settlement check took her back to the shame and trauma of those incidents.

Willette Benford was one of several incarcerated women who sued the Illinois corrections department for using mass strip searches to train cadets. A small settlement check took her back to the shame and trauma of those days.

NEW: Nationwide, some police hogtie people — a dangerous act that involves placing people on their stomachs and tying th...
05/24/2021
“He Died Like an Animal”: Some Police Departments Hogtie People Despite Knowing The Risks

NEW: Nationwide, some police hogtie people — a dangerous act that involves placing people on their stomachs and tying their hands to their feet behind their backs. We found at least 23 deaths involving some variation of hogtying in the last decade.

The U.S. Department of Justice in 1995 warned that people may die when police tie handcuffed wrists to bound ankles.

In episode two of Inside Story, our new video series designed for people in prisons and jails across the country, we exa...
05/24/2021
COVID-19 and Vaccine Mistrust Behind Bars

In episode two of Inside Story, our new video series designed for people in prisons and jails across the country, we examine the harsh impacts of the pandemic on incarcerated people and explore how the COVID-19 vaccines are being administered behind bars.

The second episode of The Marshall Project’s new video series, designed for audiences inside and outside of prison, reflects on how the COVID-19 vaccine has been received in lockups.

At least 49 states and Washington, D.C., take money meant for foster children with disabilities or a deceased parent. Fi...
05/23/2021
These States Take Money Meant for Foster Children

At least 49 states and Washington, D.C., take money meant for foster children with disabilities or a deceased parent. Find out what we know about the practice where you live:

Our reporting shows that in at least 49 states, plus Washington, D.C., foster care officials obtain federal benefits intended for children in their care.

As states move away from the death penalty, a surging number of people face life without parole. But they aren’t guarant...
05/22/2021
Life Without Parole Is Replacing the Death Penalty — But the Legal Defense System Hasn’t Kept Up

As states move away from the death penalty, a surging number of people face life without parole. But they aren’t guaranteed the same protections when it comes to indigent defense.

Read Cary Aspinwall's new investigation, in partnership with The Dallas Morning News, NBC News, and NBC 5. https://trib.al/iHYhqOq

Just ask a Dallas woman who spent a year in jail without talking to a lawyer.

Republicans across the country are increasingly split on the future of capital punishment. A Marshall Project review fou...
05/22/2021
Can The Death Penalty Be Fixed? These Republicans Think So

Republicans across the country are increasingly split on the future of capital punishment. A Marshall Project review found that in roughly half the states with an active death penalty system, Republican lawmakers have recently sponsored or written bills to ban or constrain the punishment, or to help potentially innocent prisoners avoid it.

A growing number of conservative lawmakers want to overhaul capital punishment, or end it.

New for Life Inside: Felix Sitthivong is serving 65 years in a Washington prison, and recently testified before the stat...
05/21/2021
Mr. Sitthivong Goes to Washington

New for Life Inside: Felix Sitthivong is serving 65 years in a Washington prison, and recently testified before the state’s House Public Safety Committee in support of a bill that could decrease his time. “They can stall our bills,” he writes of the “disappointing” outcome, “but they can never stall our dedication.”

Close to 400,000 people in state and federal prisons have tested positive for Covid-19— at least 2,670 have died since l...
05/21/2021
A State-by-State Look at Coronavirus in Prisons

Close to 400,000 people in state and federal prisons have tested positive for Covid-19— at least 2,670 have died since last March. More than 200 prison employees have also died. There have been over 112,000 cases among prison staff. https://trib.al/8t3DibU

The Marshall Project is collecting data on COVID-19 infections in state and federal prisons. See how the virus has affected correctional facilities where you live.

A group of generous Marshall Project board members has agreed to match any donation you make before the end of June, up ...
05/20/2021
Support Us

A group of generous Marshall Project board members has agreed to match any donation you make before the end of June, up to $100,000. That means your gift will unlock $200,000 to help us seize the moment. Let’s keep criminal justice on the front page.

The Marshall Project is a nonprofit news organization covering the U.S. criminal justice system.

In episode two of Inside Story, our new video series designed for people in prisons and jails across the country, we exa...
05/20/2021
COVID-19 and Vaccine Mistrust Behind Bars

In episode two of Inside Story, our new video series designed for people in prisons and jails across the country, we examine the harsh impacts of the pandemic on incarcerated people and explore how the COVID-19 vaccines are being administered behind bars. https://trib.al/nN0Ti7c

The second episode of The Marshall Project’s new video series, designed for audiences inside and outside of prison, reflects on how the COVID-19 vaccine has been received in lockups.

When state child welfare officials place kids in foster care due to parental neglect (as long as there’s no physical or ...
05/20/2021
These Parents Had to Bond With Their Babies Over Zoom — or Lose Them Forever

When state child welfare officials place kids in foster care due to parental neglect (as long as there’s no physical or s*xual abuse), their parents are typically entitled to regular, supervised in-person visits that allow hugging, playing, and, in the case of newborns, breastfeeding. But as the pandemic raged last spring, these visits went virtual in all 50 states, forcing thousands of new parents to attempt the impossible: bonding with their children — even infants in some cases — over video chat.

During the pandemic, video chats replaced in-person visits between parents and their children placed in foster care. The effects could linger for years.

Gerald Pizzuto is near death, but it’s unclear whether the cancer or the state of Idaho will get to him first.
05/19/2021
They Are Terminally Ill. States Want To Execute Them Anyway.

Gerald Pizzuto is near death, but it’s unclear whether the cancer or the state of Idaho will get to him first.

“I don’t understand trying to kill somebody who is already dying,” says the sister of Idaho death-row prisoner Gerald Pizzuto.

The Marshall Project has been working to produce journalism that creates a fairer, more transparent, more humane crimina...
05/18/2021
Support Us

The Marshall Project has been working to produce journalism that creates a fairer, more transparent, more humane criminal justice system.

Generous board members have agreed to match any donation you make starting today until the end of June, up to $100,000. Donate now: https://trib.al/yJLRtpQ

The Marshall Project is a nonprofit news organization covering the U.S. criminal justice system.

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I am nearly done reading Badges Without Borders: How Global Counterinsurgency Transformed American Policing by Stuart Schrader. One of numerous issues addressed is the number of police killings of US residents. I learned police killed an average of 245 people annually from 1950 to 1967 and an average of 359 per year from 1967 to 1973. During these decades 50% of the people killed were Black. Fast forward to the second decade of the 21st century. Well over a thousand police killings each and every year. People of color, especially Black men, are at higher risk than white men. I recommend the book and wanted to share these facts for historical background/context. Just like incarceration, police killings have increased to the extent that this country is no longer the land of the free.
Please consider investigating this case of injustice. Thank you.
Thanks for your wonderful reporting. It makes the world more compassionate.
Would you be willing to please post this for me? These are the words that I have prepared for SCOTUS to deal with the disgusting practice of enslaving people to generate revenue, disguised as justice. We will be bringing the case forward any day and Invoking Article III requiring that the Court actually see the case, due to the jurisdictional error created by the USDC. additional information is available on my page. These words mean a lot to me and I want people to know in advance what I am doing and why I am doing it. Thank you so much, Blessings to you and yours! This is the argument submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court that is going to end the disgusting practice of enslaving people. If you followed the Barret confirmation, you will recognize much of what is being discussed, particularly between Rule of Law and Legal Realism. If you want to know the Truth.... here it is. Be informed, know what’s at stake, stop listening to liars. The People make the laws, not judges. Judges make rulings; People make laws, ruling do not change laws. If in the opinion of the People of the United States, any of the provisions or guarantees of the United States Constitution be in any particular way wrong, let it be corrected by an Amendment in the way in which the Constitution so designates. Until, if and when that time comes, every single United States Citizen is entitled to every single right secured by the U.S. Constitution. ORAL ARGUMENT: The great philosopher Nietzsche once said, “Those who fight monsters should see to it that in the process they don’t become a monster.” There are two vastly opposing legal doctrines at work in America at this time. Our system of government is founded upon the “Government of Laws” doctrine, which is Constitutionally based. It is built upon the theory that in order for laws to be legitimate, they must be considered just and equal. This is the egalitarianism approach, which our Constitution is framed upon. In order for all men to be equal, government and laws must first treat them equal. This is the way that our system is designed to work, based upon a fixed set of laws or principles in which the courts and people adhere to and to which every United States Citizen is accustomed to. The opposite of the Government of Laws doctrine is the “Legal Realism” doctrine, which is very much alive and at work here in America destroying our system of government and infringing on the rights of the People. Legal Realism of course is the theory that law is not based upon a formal set of rules or principles, but instead upon judicial decisions deriving from their own social, political or public policy. This is not Constitutionally based, as it does not permit the fair and equal treatment of people. An excellent example of Legal Realism is the belief that a judge made ruling, such as Hurtado v. California (1887), can alter the provisions or guarantees of the United States Constitution. When one attempts to combat the doctrine of Legal Realism, they often times utilize horrible judicial decisions, such as Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), where the United States Supreme Court Chief Justice Taney stated in his assenting opinion that, “Blacks are not and were not intended to be included under the word ‘Citizen’ in the Constitution. Blacks are so far inferior that they have no rights which the white man was bound to respect. Slaves are private property protected by the Constitution.” I don’t think that any United States Citizen today can help but feel shame and anger at those horrible words spoken by the highest member of the highest court of the land. There is no doubt that decision came at a time of great conflict for our nation and clearly biased in sympathy of the South. The alteration of the Constitution in order to perpetuate slavery is not approved by God and should never be supported by good men. What has happened has happened, but to deny it would be a greater travesty. You see, a slave based system cherishes ignorance because that is the only security for its oppression. Slavery is the mortal antagonist to our democratic institution. Truth is the only thing in which people can be certain of, but truth doesn’t cease to be truth simply because no one has the courage to speak up to defend it or because someone else disagrees with it. Truth is never dependent upon the consensus of opinion. If a thousand people believe something to be foolish, yet one person know it to be true, it is still true. Truth can never be made a lie anymore that a lie can be made truth. The truth is that slavery by any other name is still slavery. Simply re-titling it “Justice” doesn’t make it any less appalling. Changing it from a private institution to a state-run institution doesn’t make it any more Constitutionally acceptable. It is still slavery and it is still a horrible injustice and wrong against humanity, regardless of what you call it or how you disguise it. While we are on the topic of truth, let’s produce some more truth. In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson, there were eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who all assented to the opinion that, “Blacks are not people and therefore, not entitled to the protection of the United States Constitution” and “Blacks are so far inferior that they have no rights which the white man was bound to follow.” In this case, there was one single, brave, Supreme Court Justice who dissented with the rest stating, “Our Constitution is color-blind and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect to civil rights, all citizens are equal before the Law.” This brave patriot was Justice John Marshall Harlan and this wasn’t the only time that he found himself as the lone dissenter against every other Justice on the United States Supreme Court. One other such instance was in the case of Hurtado v. California. You see, the truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Slaves are private property protected by the Constitution,” also said that United States Citizens are not protected by the provisions and guarantees of the 5th Amendment. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are not people,” also said that the United States Constitution is not the supreme Law of the Land and does not enjoy legal superiority over conflicting provisions with state constitutions. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are far inferior to the white man,” also said that geographical discriminations are acceptable under our Constitution of government. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who said, “Blacks are not and where not intended to be ‘Citizens’ in the Constitution,” also said that states have the right to abridge the privileges and immunities of United States Citizens. The truth is that the same eight of the nine United States Supreme Court Justices who allowed their political interests for the advancement of an industry to cloud their good judgment also put into practice a ruling intended to advance that industry under a different name, overstepping the Separation of Powers and legislating from the bench, in violation of the United States Constitution and the Oaths of the Offices for which they serve. George Washington voiced his concern about geographical discriminations in his farewell address, whereby he stated, "In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union, it occurs as a matter of serious concern, that any ground have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views.” Foreseeing the potential for dissention here in America, Mr. Washington advised vigilance against, “The first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.” The bonds which unite us as one people are: origin, language, belief and laws. These are the 4 great ties that hold our whole society together. The Constitution binds the American people to goals that are incompatible with slavery. President Abraham Lincoln said, “It has long been a grave question whether any government, not too strong for the liberties of its people, can be strong enough to maintain its own existence in great emergencies.” United States Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall echoed this sentiment when he said, “Grave threats to liberty come in times of urgency, when Constitutional rights seem too extravagant to endure.” The strongest bond which holds our nation together is the faith in the laws between us. This is not the United States of California, or the United States of Washington. I didn’t serve my country in the military fighting for Texas or Alabama, I was defending America, as I am now and as I will continue until such time as God or death has relieved me of my obligation. It is time now for the courts to do the same. Here is some more truth. The truth is that United States Citizens are governed by the Laws of the United States. The truth is that United States Citizens are guaranteed the rights secured by the United States Constitution. The truth is that no person can be held to answer for an infamous crime without an indictment by a Grand Jury. The truth is that one brave Supreme Court Justice did the right thing and stood for American principles despite fierce opposition at a time of great peril and his sage wisdom can be trusted today. God bless Justice John Marshall Harlan. The truth is that United States Citizens can believe and have faith in the United States Constitution, because the truth can always be trusted to fight our battles; the truth can always defend itself, as long as there is someone with the courage to speak it. The role of government is to govern, but that role to govern must be fair. Government ceases to govern when it chooses to take sides; it is no longer governing, rather ruling. Every Citizen is entitled to fair and equal governing in the same way that every Citizen is entitled to the equal protection of laws. Thomas Jefferson voiced this to us when he said, “Bear in mind this sacred principle, at though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, to which equal law must protect and to violate would be oppression.” To understand the rationale behind Article 3. Section 2. of the United States Constitution, which states, “In all Cases in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction,” we can turn to the author himself and the words that he published in “The Federalist Papers,” Circular Number 10, New York Packet, November 23, 1787, the article titled, “The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” In the article, James Madison stated, “No man is allowed to be judge in his own cause, because his interest would certainly bias his judgment and, not improbably, corrupt his integrity. With equal, nay, with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties at the same time.” States cannot be and were never intended to be, both judge and party in the same cause, because of the bias, prejudice and partiality which would ultimately transpire as a result of it. States cannot be both accuser and judge or else innocence will suffer. So in the same way and for the same reason why Tanawah M. Downing v. State of Washington (2019) in the current civil action is unconstitutional, so also is State of Washington v. Tanawah M. Downing (2017) in the original criminal action is unconstitutional. If 1+2=3 is unconstitutional, then obviously 2+1=3 is also unconstitutional, simply rearranging the order of the Parties, does not magically change the representation of the Parties. Article 3. Section 2. of the United States Constitution clearly states, “In all Cases in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.” As a result, both Tanawah M. Downing v. State of Washington and State of Washington v. Tanawah M. Downing are unconstitutional and therefore, illegal and the only court with jurisdictional authority to resolve both cases is the court which had jurisdictional authority in the cases to begin with, which is the United States Supreme Court, in accordance with the United States Constitution. Our forefathers who framed our Constitution were simple, yet wise men. They weren’t establishing complex principles or elaborate institutions to which only men of rich, or noble, or educated backgrounds could understand. You see, they were simply trying to create an accounting system which adequately and fairly reconciled the debt owed to society. If you choose to violate the law, you incur a DEBT that is OWED to society, to which you are CHARGED and called to ACCOUNT so that you may PAY the debt. These are all simple accounting terms. The way that debt normally works is, if I want to purchase something from a store, a bill will first be generated, which I sign and accept. Then my account is charged and I incur a debt, to which I then have to pay. This is a very simple method for transactions to which anyone can understand. However, if the store charges a person’s account without billing them first, that is called fraud. You must always bill before a charge is generated. How all of this applies to this case is that an indictment is called a “bill”. So absent an indictment, people are being charged fraudulently because they are not being billed first. Understanding this now, anyone who claims that a Bill of Indictment is not first needed before charging someone’s account, doesn’t understand that basic principles and practices of the system in which they are dealing with. As a result of this very basic, fundamental element of our nation’s legal accounting system being ignored, millions of United States Citizens have incurred illegal and fraudulent debt. America must address this accounting flaw in its legal system. In accordance with Rule 23 of the USCS Rules of Civil Procedure and in light of all the aforementioned evidence, as well as the supporting evidence, Petitioner asks the United States Supreme Court to authorize the application of the CLASS Action device in this Habeas Corpus proceeding. Included within Addendum 3, the Court will find the names of only a couple of the thousands of Petitioners who filed a Writ of Habeas Corpus pursuant to Title 28 USC §2254 between April 10, 2019 and September 2019 who’s cases raised the exact same allegations and were illegally and unconstitutionally dismissed by the United States District Court, despite the jurisdictional error and who are all now entitled to remanding of their cases to the United States Supreme Court for legal and Constitutionally acceptable adjudication. The last point that I would like to make is that, every single thing that I am advocating is consistent with God’s divine attributes: release of prisoners, return of exiled captives, love in lieu of hate, compassion and not condemnation, forgiveness instead of vengeance, equity and not tyranny. I know what side I am on, so ask yourself, if I fight for God and you fight against me, who is it that you are fighting for? Respectfully & Peacefully a Servant of Justice, Tanawah M. Downing Petitioner, Pro Se