Institute for Southeast Asian Archaeology - ISEAA

Institute for Southeast Asian Archaeology - ISEAA Investigating prehistory in Southeast Asia and developing archaeological resources for scholarly and public access. ISEAA was founded by Dr. Joyce White in 2013.

Established in October 2013, the new Institute for Southeast Asian Archaeology (ISEAA) continues and builds upon the decades-long archaeological research programs in Thailand and Laos at the University of Pennsylvania Museum. In June 2013, Penn ended funding for these research programs and transferred current research and publications projects to the ISEAA. ISEAA joins a number of non-profits that

Established in October 2013, the new Institute for Southeast Asian Archaeology (ISEAA) continues and builds upon the decades-long archaeological research programs in Thailand and Laos at the University of Pennsylvania Museum. In June 2013, Penn ended funding for these research programs and transferred current research and publications projects to the ISEAA. ISEAA joins a number of non-profits that

Operating as usual

Many ISEAA followers excavate in caves, so McAdams et als.' article "A batsh*t experiment: bones cooked in bat poo lift ...
01/25/2022

Many ISEAA followers excavate in caves, so McAdams et als.' article "A batsh*t experiment: bones cooked in bat poo lift the lid on how archaeological sites are formed" in The Conversation will be of interest https://theconversation.com/a-batsh*t-experiment-bones-cooked-in-bat-poo-lift-the-lid-on-how-archaeological-sites-are-formed-156865 . They designed a laboratory experiment to better understand whether waterlogged guano destroys bones, stones, charcoal and other organic remains. While the guano did not become acidic, materials buried in guano were rapidly altered and destroyed (see image). Their experiment demonstrates the chemical cocktail formed in waterlogged guano would have destroyed the traces of any human activity in the oldest deposits at Con Moong Cave, for example.

Many ISEAA followers excavate in caves, so McAdams et als.' article "A batsh*t experiment: bones cooked in bat poo lift the lid on how archaeological sites are formed" in The Conversation will be of interest https://theconversation.com/a-batsh*t-experiment-bones-cooked-in-bat-poo-lift-the-lid-on-how-archaeological-sites-are-formed-156865 . They designed a laboratory experiment to better understand whether waterlogged guano destroys bones, stones, charcoal and other organic remains. While the guano did not become acidic, materials buried in guano were rapidly altered and destroyed (see image). Their experiment demonstrates the chemical cocktail formed in waterlogged guano would have destroyed the traces of any human activity in the oldest deposits at Con Moong Cave, for example.

An example of how archaeological assemblages contribute to natural history studies, Na Ayudhya et al. published "Palaeoe...
01/23/2022

An example of how archaeological assemblages contribute to natural history studies, Na Ayudhya et al. published "Palaeoecological Reconstruction of Serows and Gorals (Bovidae: Caprinae) from the Pleistocene of Thailand using Dental Mesowear and Hypsodonty: Implications for Species Conservation" in The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal http:doi.org/10.14456/thnhmj.2021.10 . Fauna from Tham Lod Rockshelter contributed a Late Pleistocene assemblage to this study that supports the idea that the Pleistocene caprine populations underwent drastic changes in diet and habitat use between the Pleistocene and the present day, possibly driven by the climate change and anthropogenic disturbances since the beginning of the Holocene. The map compares the distribution of Pleistocene and extant caprines in Southeast Asia, eastern region of South Asia, and South China.

An example of how archaeological assemblages contribute to natural history studies, Na Ayudhya et al. published "Palaeoecological Reconstruction of Serows and Gorals (Bovidae: Caprinae) from the Pleistocene of Thailand using Dental Mesowear and Hypsodonty: Implications for Species Conservation" in The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal http:doi.org/10.14456/thnhmj.2021.10 . Fauna from Tham Lod Rockshelter contributed a Late Pleistocene assemblage to this study that supports the idea that the Pleistocene caprine populations underwent drastic changes in diet and habitat use between the Pleistocene and the present day, possibly driven by the climate change and anthropogenic disturbances since the beginning of the Holocene. The map compares the distribution of Pleistocene and extant caprines in Southeast Asia, eastern region of South Asia, and South China.

ISEAA followers, this is an important opportunity for "scholars who are Southeast Asian nationals based in Southeast Asi...
01/21/2022

ISEAA followers, this is an important opportunity for "scholars who are Southeast Asian nationals based in Southeast Asia and at Southeast Asian institutions." Its goal is to enable such scholars to concentrate on publishing their dissertation research, and/or embark on new post-dissertation research, without the distraction of having to teach, consult, or shoulder administrative burdens, and with the opportunity to expand their scholarly networks and expertise. The intent is that fellowship recipients will develop their careers in Southeast Asia, helping to advance the field of Southeast Asian Studies within the region. I hope archaeologists will apply and receive these fellowships!

The Association for Asian Studies is honored to announce the new Gosling-Lim Postdoctoral Fellowship in Southeast Asian Studies, made possible by a generous gift from L.A. Peter Gosling and Linda Yuen-Ching Lim. https://buff.ly/3nMpiDA

Wang et al. published "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago" in ...
01/18/2022

Wang et al. published "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago" in Cell https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.018 . They sequenced 31 ancient genomes from southern China (Guangxi and Fujian), including two ∼12,000- to 10,000-year-old individuals representing the oldest humans sequenced from southern China. They discovered a deeply diverged East Asian ancestry in the Guangxi region that persisted until at least 6,000 years ago. They found that ∼9,000- to 6,000-year-old Guangxi populations were a mixture of local ancestry, southern ancestry previously sampled in Fujian, and deep Asian ancestry related to Southeast Asian Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers, showing broad admixture in the region predating the appearance of farming. Historical Guangxi populations dating to ∼1,500 to 500 years ago are closely related to Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speakers. These results show heavy interactions among three distinct ancestries at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia. Importantly, the authors conclude " the two-layer model is not sufficient to describe the population movement, replacement, and mixture in prehistoric Asia.'

Wang et al. published "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago" in Cell https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.018 . They sequenced 31 ancient genomes from southern China (Guangxi and Fujian), including two ∼12,000- to 10,000-year-old individuals representing the oldest humans sequenced from southern China. They discovered a deeply diverged East Asian ancestry in the Guangxi region that persisted until at least 6,000 years ago. They found that ∼9,000- to 6,000-year-old Guangxi populations were a mixture of local ancestry, southern ancestry previously sampled in Fujian, and deep Asian ancestry related to Southeast Asian Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers, showing broad admixture in the region predating the appearance of farming. Historical Guangxi populations dating to ∼1,500 to 500 years ago are closely related to Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speakers. These results show heavy interactions among three distinct ancestries at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia. Importantly, the authors conclude " the two-layer model is not sufficient to describe the population movement, replacement, and mixture in prehistoric Asia.'

Wang et al. published "Glass beads from Guishan in Iron Age Taiwan: Inter-regional bead exchange between Taiwan, Southea...
01/16/2022

Wang et al. published "Glass beads from Guishan in Iron Age Taiwan: Inter-regional bead exchange between Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond" in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102737 . This research investigates the exchange of glass beads between eastern Taiwan and Southeast Asia by analysing the styles, chemical composition and microstructure of 64 glass beads from Guishan, using SEM-EDS, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. The findings suggest that beads with an m-Na-Al glass and v-Na-Ca composition are the most common, supporting evidence for bead exchange between Guishan and Southeast Asia, although know-how and some raw materials may have ultimately originated in South Asia and Western Asia. Furthermore, most m-Na-Al glasses were coloured by copper, and different types of copper-based additives may have been used for different colours, indicating the beads may be derived from multiple production centres or workshops. The glass bead compositions suggest that glass bead exchange between other contemporary sites within Taiwan is less evident, except for one type of yellow glass bead containing bone ash. This bone-ash containing yellow glass at Guishan is first identified in Iron Age Taiwan as well as around the South China Sea region. Its counterparts are also found from archaeological sites in southeastern and coastal eastern Taiwan, which might indicate small scale glass bead exchange. This evidence together suggests a dynamic glass bead exchange network between Guishan, eastern Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond.

Wang et al. published "Glass beads from Guishan in Iron Age Taiwan: Inter-regional bead exchange between Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond" in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102737 . This research investigates the exchange of glass beads between eastern Taiwan and Southeast Asia by analysing the styles, chemical composition and microstructure of 64 glass beads from Guishan, using SEM-EDS, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. The findings suggest that beads with an m-Na-Al glass and v-Na-Ca composition are the most common, supporting evidence for bead exchange between Guishan and Southeast Asia, although know-how and some raw materials may have ultimately originated in South Asia and Western Asia. Furthermore, most m-Na-Al glasses were coloured by copper, and different types of copper-based additives may have been used for different colours, indicating the beads may be derived from multiple production centres or workshops. The glass bead compositions suggest that glass bead exchange between other contemporary sites within Taiwan is less evident, except for one type of yellow glass bead containing bone ash. This bone-ash containing yellow glass at Guishan is first identified in Iron Age Taiwan as well as around the South China Sea region. Its counterparts are also found from archaeological sites in southeastern and coastal eastern Taiwan, which might indicate small scale glass bead exchange. This evidence together suggests a dynamic glass bead exchange network between Guishan, eastern Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond.

Cochrane et al. published "The first quantitative assessment of radiocarbon chronologies for initial pottery in Island S...
01/11/2022

Cochrane et al. published "The first quantitative assessment of radiocarbon chronologies for initial pottery in Island Southeast Asia supports multi-directional Neolithic dispersal" in PlosOne https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251407 . They present a Bayesian chronological analysis of initial pottery deposition in Island Southeast Asia and western Near Oceania. Both site-scale and island-scale Bayesian models were produced in Oxcal using radiocarbon determinations that are most confidently associated with selected target events. Their results indicate multi-directional Neolithic dispersal in Island Southeast Asia, with the earliest pottery contemporaneously deposited in western Borneo and the northern Philippines. This work supports emerging research that identifies separate processes of biological, linguistic, and material culture change in Island Southeast Asia.

Cochrane et al. published "The first quantitative assessment of radiocarbon chronologies for initial pottery in Island Southeast Asia supports multi-directional Neolithic dispersal" in PlosOne https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251407 . They present a Bayesian chronological analysis of initial pottery deposition in Island Southeast Asia and western Near Oceania. Both site-scale and island-scale Bayesian models were produced in Oxcal using radiocarbon determinations that are most confidently associated with selected target events. Their results indicate multi-directional Neolithic dispersal in Island Southeast Asia, with the earliest pottery contemporaneously deposited in western Borneo and the northern Philippines. This work supports emerging research that identifies separate processes of biological, linguistic, and material culture change in Island Southeast Asia.

Wu et al. published "High-precision U-series dating of the late Pleistocene – early Holocene rock paintings at Tiger Lea...
01/09/2022

Wu et al. published "High-precision U-series dating of the late Pleistocene – early Holocene rock paintings at Tiger Leaping Gorge, Jinsha River valley, southwestern China" in the Journal of Archaeological Science https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2021.105535 . Rock paintings in Yunnan, found at more than 70 sites in the Jinsha River valley, include naturalistic outlines of large mammals. Wanrendong Cave in Tiger Leaping Gorge has preserved typical Jinsha River rock paintings associated with speleothems. High precision U-series dating revealed that these red paintings were created during the Pleistocene – Holocene transition. Results show at least three painting phases: ∼13,000–13,580 yr B.P., ∼10,540–10,830 yr B.P., and ∼8370–8700 yr B.P. These intervals are substantially earlier than the timing of agriculture in Yunnan Province (∼4600 yr BP), indicating that these paintings were created by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Additionally, these intervals coincide with the Bølling-Allerød and early Holocene warming periods, suggesting a possible link between the rock painting activity and climate changes.

Wu et al. published "High-precision U-series dating of the late Pleistocene – early Holocene rock paintings at Tiger Leaping Gorge, Jinsha River valley, southwestern China" in the Journal of Archaeological Science https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2021.105535 . Rock paintings in Yunnan, found at more than 70 sites in the Jinsha River valley, include naturalistic outlines of large mammals. Wanrendong Cave in Tiger Leaping Gorge has preserved typical Jinsha River rock paintings associated with speleothems. High precision U-series dating revealed that these red paintings were created during the Pleistocene – Holocene transition. Results show at least three painting phases: ∼13,000–13,580 yr B.P., ∼10,540–10,830 yr B.P., and ∼8370–8700 yr B.P. These intervals are substantially earlier than the timing of agriculture in Yunnan Province (∼4600 yr BP), indicating that these paintings were created by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Additionally, these intervals coincide with the Bølling-Allerød and early Holocene warming periods, suggesting a possible link between the rock painting activity and climate changes.

Perston et al. published "TECHNOLOGY, SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA, DURING...
01/04/2022

Perston et al. published "TECHNOLOGY, SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA, DURING THE TOALEAN MID-HOLOCENE PERIOD: RECENT ADVANCES IN RESEARCH" in the Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology https://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/JIPA/article/view/15693 . They show that that Toalean-era toolmakers were able to adapt to different environments and raw material sources, but would also transport desired raw materials for production of certain artifact types. Early quarry sites have also been identified. In addition, new excavations have revealed complex tool forms in forested highland environments, previously thought to hold only sparse and elementary assemblages, allowing reassessment of 20th century models of Toalean cultural sub-groups and distribution. The rich parietal art initially attributed to the Toalean has now been dated to the Late Pleistocene.

Perston et al. published "TECHNOLOGY, SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA, DURING THE TOALEAN MID-HOLOCENE PERIOD: RECENT ADVANCES IN RESEARCH" in the Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology https://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/JIPA/article/view/15693 . They show that that Toalean-era toolmakers were able to adapt to different environments and raw material sources, but would also transport desired raw materials for production of certain artifact types. Early quarry sites have also been identified. In addition, new excavations have revealed complex tool forms in forested highland environments, previously thought to hold only sparse and elementary assemblages, allowing reassessment of 20th century models of Toalean cultural sub-groups and distribution. The rich parietal art initially attributed to the Toalean has now been dated to the Late Pleistocene.

Kutanan et al. published "Reconstructing the Human Genetic History of Mainland Southeast Asia: Insights from Genome-Wide...
01/02/2022

Kutanan et al. published "Reconstructing the Human Genetic History of Mainland Southeast Asia: Insights from Genome-Wide Data from Thailand and Laos" in Molecular Biology and Evolution DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msab124 . They sampled from five language families of MSEA: Tai-Kadai (TK), Austroasiatic (AA), Sino-Tibetan (ST), Hmong-Mien (HM), and Austronesian (AN). They found genetic structures according to language family, but with evidence of mixing and drift, plus interaction with South Asian populations.

Kutanan et al. published "Reconstructing the Human Genetic History of Mainland Southeast Asia: Insights from Genome-Wide Data from Thailand and Laos" in Molecular Biology and Evolution DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msab124 . They sampled from five language families of MSEA: Tai-Kadai (TK), Austroasiatic (AA), Sino-Tibetan (ST), Hmong-Mien (HM), and Austronesian (AN). They found genetic structures according to language family, but with evidence of mixing and drift, plus interaction with South Asian populations.

Pryce et al. published "Copper-base metal supply during the northern Vietnamese Bronze and Iron Ages: metallographic, el...
12/30/2021

Pryce et al. published "Copper-base metal supply during the northern Vietnamese Bronze and Iron Ages: metallographic, elemental, and lead isotope data from Dai Trach, Thành Dên, Gò Mun, and Xuân Lâp" in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences https://rdcu.be/cD6xl . Analyses of one slag and 27 copper-base artefacts from northern Vietnam are attributed to the Đồng Đậu (ca. 1300–1000 BC), Gò Mun (ca. 1000–700 BC), and Đông Sơn (ca. 700 BC–100 AD) cultures. All metal samples are identified as bronzes, rather than copper, though seven are leaded bronzes. Lead isotope results were notable, in that none of the study samples is consistent with the known prehistoric Southeast Asian copper production signatures, an unusual occurrence in recent regional provenance research. It seems there was only weak overlap in exchange systems between northern Vietnam and southern Mainland Southeast Asia. The image is an optical plane-polarised light micrograph of DTR/9 showing as-cast/α + δ eutectoid structure (bottom) and corrosion (top).

Pryce et al. published "Copper-base metal supply during the northern Vietnamese Bronze and Iron Ages: metallographic, elemental, and lead isotope data from Dai Trach, Thành Dên, Gò Mun, and Xuân Lâp" in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences https://rdcu.be/cD6xl . Analyses of one slag and 27 copper-base artefacts from northern Vietnam are attributed to the Đồng Đậu (ca. 1300–1000 BC), Gò Mun (ca. 1000–700 BC), and Đông Sơn (ca. 700 BC–100 AD) cultures. All metal samples are identified as bronzes, rather than copper, though seven are leaded bronzes. Lead isotope results were notable, in that none of the study samples is consistent with the known prehistoric Southeast Asian copper production signatures, an unusual occurrence in recent regional provenance research. It seems there was only weak overlap in exchange systems between northern Vietnam and southern Mainland Southeast Asia. The image is an optical plane-polarised light micrograph of DTR/9 showing as-cast/α + δ eutectoid structure (bottom) and corrosion (top).

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Many ISEAA followers excavate in caves, so McAdams et als.' article "A batsh*t experiment: bones cooked in bat poo lift the lid on how archaeological sites are formed" in The Conversation will be of interest https://theconversation.com/a-batsh*t-experiment-bones-cooked-in-bat-poo-lift-the-lid-on-how-archaeological-sites-are-formed-156865 . They designed a laboratory experiment to better understand whether waterlogged guano destroys bones, stones, charcoal and other organic remains. While the guano did not become acidic, materials buried in guano were rapidly altered and destroyed (see image). Their experiment demonstrates the chemical cocktail formed in waterlogged guano would have destroyed the traces of any human activity in the oldest deposits at Con Moong Cave, for example.
An example of how archaeological assemblages contribute to natural history studies, Na Ayudhya et al. published "Palaeoecological Reconstruction of Serows and Gorals (Bovidae: Caprinae) from the Pleistocene of Thailand using Dental Mesowear and Hypsodonty: Implications for Species Conservation" in The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal http:doi.org/10.14456/thnhmj.2021.10 . Fauna from Tham Lod Rockshelter contributed a Late Pleistocene assemblage to this study that supports the idea that the Pleistocene caprine populations underwent drastic changes in diet and habitat use between the Pleistocene and the present day, possibly driven by the climate change and anthropogenic disturbances since the beginning of the Holocene. The map compares the distribution of Pleistocene and extant caprines in Southeast Asia, eastern region of South Asia, and South China.
ISEAA followers, this is an important opportunity for "scholars who are Southeast Asian nationals based in Southeast Asia and at Southeast Asian institutions." Its goal is to enable such scholars to concentrate on publishing their dissertation research, and/or embark on new post-dissertation research, without the distraction of having to teach, consult, or shoulder administrative burdens, and with the opportunity to expand their scholarly networks and expertise. The intent is that fellowship recipients will develop their careers in Southeast Asia, helping to advance the field of Southeast Asian Studies within the region. I hope archaeologists will apply and receive these fellowships!
Wang et al. published "Human population history at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia since 11,000 years ago" in Cell https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.018 . They sequenced 31 ancient genomes from southern China (Guangxi and Fujian), including two ∼12,000- to 10,000-year-old individuals representing the oldest humans sequenced from southern China. They discovered a deeply diverged East Asian ancestry in the Guangxi region that persisted until at least 6,000 years ago. They found that ∼9,000- to 6,000-year-old Guangxi populations were a mixture of local ancestry, southern ancestry previously sampled in Fujian, and deep Asian ancestry related to Southeast Asian Hòabìnhian hunter-gatherers, showing broad admixture in the region predating the appearance of farming. Historical Guangxi populations dating to ∼1,500 to 500 years ago are closely related to Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speakers. These results show heavy interactions among three distinct ancestries at the crossroads of East and Southeast Asia. Importantly, the authors conclude " the two-layer model is not sufficient to describe the population movement, replacement, and mixture in prehistoric Asia.'
Wang et al. published "Glass beads from Guishan in Iron Age Taiwan: Inter-regional bead exchange between Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond" in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2020.102737 . This research investigates the exchange of glass beads between eastern Taiwan and Southeast Asia by analysing the styles, chemical composition and microstructure of 64 glass beads from Guishan, using SEM-EDS, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS. The findings suggest that beads with an m-Na-Al glass and v-Na-Ca composition are the most common, supporting evidence for bead exchange between Guishan and Southeast Asia, although know-how and some raw materials may have ultimately originated in South Asia and Western Asia. Furthermore, most m-Na-Al glasses were coloured by copper, and different types of copper-based additives may have been used for different colours, indicating the beads may be derived from multiple production centres or workshops. The glass bead compositions suggest that glass bead exchange between other contemporary sites within Taiwan is less evident, except for one type of yellow glass bead containing bone ash. This bone-ash containing yellow glass at Guishan is first identified in Iron Age Taiwan as well as around the South China Sea region. Its counterparts are also found from archaeological sites in southeastern and coastal eastern Taiwan, which might indicate small scale glass bead exchange. This evidence together suggests a dynamic glass bead exchange network between Guishan, eastern Taiwan, Southeast Asia and beyond.
Cochrane et al. published "The first quantitative assessment of radiocarbon chronologies for initial pottery in Island Southeast Asia supports multi-directional Neolithic dispersal" in PlosOne https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251407 . They present a Bayesian chronological analysis of initial pottery deposition in Island Southeast Asia and western Near Oceania. Both site-scale and island-scale Bayesian models were produced in Oxcal using radiocarbon determinations that are most confidently associated with selected target events. Their results indicate multi-directional Neolithic dispersal in Island Southeast Asia, with the earliest pottery contemporaneously deposited in western Borneo and the northern Philippines. This work supports emerging research that identifies separate processes of biological, linguistic, and material culture change in Island Southeast Asia.
Wu et al. published "High-precision U-series dating of the late Pleistocene – early Holocene rock paintings at Tiger Leaping Gorge, Jinsha River valley, southwestern China" in the Journal of Archaeological Science https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2021.105535 . Rock paintings in Yunnan, found at more than 70 sites in the Jinsha River valley, include naturalistic outlines of large mammals. Wanrendong Cave in Tiger Leaping Gorge has preserved typical Jinsha River rock paintings associated with speleothems. High precision U-series dating revealed that these red paintings were created during the Pleistocene – Holocene transition. Results show at least three painting phases: ∼13,000–13,580 yr B.P., ∼10,540–10,830 yr B.P., and ∼8370–8700 yr B.P. These intervals are substantially earlier than the timing of agriculture in Yunnan Province (∼4600 yr BP), indicating that these paintings were created by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Additionally, these intervals coincide with the Bølling-Allerød and early Holocene warming periods, suggesting a possible link between the rock painting activity and climate changes.
Perston et al. published "TECHNOLOGY, SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA, DURING THE TOALEAN MID-HOLOCENE PERIOD: RECENT ADVANCES IN RESEARCH" in the Journal of Indo-Pacific Archaeology https://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/JIPA/article/view/15693 . They show that that Toalean-era toolmakers were able to adapt to different environments and raw material sources, but would also transport desired raw materials for production of certain artifact types. Early quarry sites have also been identified. In addition, new excavations have revealed complex tool forms in forested highland environments, previously thought to hold only sparse and elementary assemblages, allowing reassessment of 20th century models of Toalean cultural sub-groups and distribution. The rich parietal art initially attributed to the Toalean has now been dated to the Late Pleistocene.
Kutanan et al. published "Reconstructing the Human Genetic History of Mainland Southeast Asia: Insights from Genome-Wide Data from Thailand and Laos" in Molecular Biology and Evolution DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msab124 . They sampled from five language families of MSEA: Tai-Kadai (TK), Austroasiatic (AA), Sino-Tibetan (ST), Hmong-Mien (HM), and Austronesian (AN). They found genetic structures according to language family, but with evidence of mixing and drift, plus interaction with South Asian populations.
Pryce et al. published "Copper-base metal supply during the northern Vietnamese Bronze and Iron Ages: metallographic, elemental, and lead isotope data from Dai Trach, Thành Dên, Gò Mun, and Xuân Lâp" in Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences https://rdcu.be/cD6xl . Analyses of one slag and 27 copper-base artefacts from northern Vietnam are attributed to the Đồng Đậu (ca. 1300–1000 BC), Gò Mun (ca. 1000–700 BC), and Đông Sơn (ca. 700 BC–100 AD) cultures. All metal samples are identified as bronzes, rather than copper, though seven are leaded bronzes. Lead isotope results were notable, in that none of the study samples is consistent with the known prehistoric Southeast Asian copper production signatures, an unusual occurrence in recent regional provenance research. It seems there was only weak overlap in exchange systems between northern Vietnam and southern Mainland Southeast Asia. The image is an optical plane-polarised light micrograph of DTR/9 showing as-cast/α + δ eutectoid structure (bottom) and corrosion (top).
Bellina et al. published "COASTAL HERITAGE: EXPLORING CAVES AND INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE IN THE LANTA BAY (SOUTHERN THAILAND)" in the new JIPA https://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/JIPA/article/view/15695 . The article presents preliminary results of community-based archaeological and ethnographic research on the maritime heritage landscape along the Lanta Bay involving the Urak Lawoi sea nomads and with a focus on caves and rock art. It documents several newly-discovered rock art sites as well as the relationships local groups entertain, or not, with these caves. The research wishes to investigate the various social groups direct or indirect involvement in a regional network through time: merchants, sea nomads, fishermen, estuarine and inland forest groups, etc. Until now, research has mostly focused on lowland riverine ports, foreign merchants, and long-distance connections. Much less attention has been paid to the local groups for whom offshore or coastal caves, islands and mangrove forests in estuaries constituted places for resource procurement, homes, landmarks, temporary shelters or ritual places. This project aims to document these groups’ contributions to maritime history and the landscape heritage. The image shows one of the best-preserved examples of rock art in the area.