Brooklyn Eagle

Brooklyn Eagle Your source for Everything Brooklyn since 1841.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle has a history of producing and distributing news that stretches back to its opening in October of 1841. Over 150 years later, the Eagle is a nineteenth century paper for a twenty-first century audience. We are forever committed to investigating all that defines the exquisitely unique and ever-changing culture of New York City's most popular borough.

Mission: The Brooklyn Eagle is committed to clearly presenting the cultural, political, artistic and financial landscape of Brooklyn. We are not just your typical courier: The Eagle showcases the creative liveliness that defines this bustling borough. We consider ourselves a lighthouse illuminating all that stands out in this growing environment.

Brooklyn will look to avoid play-in scenario in Eastern Conference
06/05/2020
Under NBA Return to Play plan, Nets must battle for playoff spot

Brooklyn will look to avoid play-in scenario in Eastern Conference

The first of the four major pro sports leagues to shut down is also the first with a solid plan in place to reopen. Even if it doesn’t suit the Brooklyn Nets as well as previous versions of the NBA’s Return to Play initiative. The league informed the NBA Players Association that it will present ...

The final two scenes of the week seem similar to each other and as ordinary as can be.
06/05/2020
Kaufman’s Brooklyn: June 5: Two photos from ‘An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets’

The final two scenes of the week seem similar to each other and as ordinary as can be.

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

"Truly impactful service requires thinking about what your human currency is and how it can contribute to better the liv...
06/05/2020
Opinions & Observations: Acts of service can help heal 'empathy deficit' amid protests, COVID-19

"Truly impactful service requires thinking about what your human currency is and how it can contribute to better the lives of people around you."

Like many, I have watched with an ever-shifting mix of inspiration, concern and sadness as cities across the country bear witness to mass protests not seen in decades. It has been inspiring to see communities rise up against systemic violence and oppression, though the near constant police sirens an...

"I want to say welcome to my friend C.O., who is not only here to be sexy, he’s about to cook for us."
06/05/2020
COVID-19 update: A treat for health workers: Charles Oakley cooks meals at Interfaith Medical Center

"I want to say welcome to my friend C.O., who is not only here to be sexy, he’s about to cook for us."

On the front lines of the war on COVID-19, there are many civilian heroes going out of their way, as volunteers and contributors. Also, many who are elected to serve are going the extra mile. In this column the Eagle hopes to give our readers an ongoing update on those fighting in the front lines. ....

NBA Board of Governors to vote Thursday to decide playoff scenario
06/04/2020
Brooklyn Nets eye summer start date for postseason tournament

NBA Board of Governors to vote Thursday to decide playoff scenario

The Brooklyn Nets, idle since March 11 along with the rest of the NBA due to the ongoing coroanvirus pandemic, might finally have a start date for their potential return to the hardwood later this summer. Reports circulating since a meeting of the NBA Board of Governors last Friday indicate that the...

Billion Oyster Project brings over 1,000 juvenile oysters to Domino Park waterfront
06/04/2020
Billion Oyster Project brings over 1,000 juvenile oysters to Domino Park waterfront

Billion Oyster Project brings over 1,000 juvenile oysters to Domino Park waterfront

Billion Oyster Project and Brooklyn-based developer Two Trees Management have teamed up to implement Oyster Research Stations at Domino Park and River Street to clean, restore, and protect the local ecosystem. On Tuesday, the organization welcomed over 1,000 juvenile oysters to the Williamsburg wate...

Whether from a grocery store, a deli or a sidewalk, shopping for food was a constant activity during the Great Depressio...
06/03/2020
Kaufman’s Brooklyn: June 3: Two photos from ‘An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets’

Whether from a grocery store, a deli or a sidewalk, shopping for food was a constant activity during the Great Depression.

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

"It’s a shock."
06/03/2020
One man killed, another in critical condition after East Flatbush shooting

"It’s a shock."

Two older men were fatally shot in a vehicle outside an East Flatbush housing complex Tuesday afternoon within the confines of the 67th precinct. Police responded to a call around 6:05 p.m. at East 92nd Street and Church Avenue, where they found a 58-year-old and a 66-year-old with multiple gunshot....

The city has hired 1,700 people for its contact tracing effort.
06/03/2020
Contact tracers reach out to 600 on first day; City phase-in still slated for Monday

The city has hired 1,700 people for its contact tracing effort.

NEW YORK (AP) — New York City contact tracers hired to contain the spread of the coronavirus reached out to all of the roughly 600 people who tested positive for the virus citywide on Monday, the first day of the program, and succeeded in reaching more than half of them, officials said Tuesday. .....

"We just kept on moving and we’re not stopping."
06/03/2020
'Not stopping': Defiant NYC protesters march through curfew

"We just kept on moving and we’re not stopping."

NEW YORK (AP) — An 8 p.m. curfew didn’t stop thousands of defiant demonstrators from marching through the streets of New York City throughout the night Tuesday, though some of the destruction seen over the past few nights was quelled. The citywide curfew, which is in place through Sunday, was in...

The Brooklyn Hospital Center has moved its specialty practices into a brand new building.
06/03/2020
COVID-19 update: The Physicians Pavilion: The Brooklyn Hospital Center opens brand new facility in Fort Greene

The Brooklyn Hospital Center has moved its specialty practices into a brand new building.

On the front lines of the war on COVID-19, there are many civilian heroes going out of their way, as volunteers and contributors. Also, many who are elected to serve are going the extra mile. In this column the Eagle hopes to give our readers an ongoing update on those fighting in the front lines. ....

"Our values as Jews demand our Brooklyn Jewish community show up, speak out, and advocate for change."
06/03/2020
Opinions & Observations: The Torah tells us what to do in the wake of George Floyd's death

"Our values as Jews demand our Brooklyn Jewish community show up, speak out, and advocate for change."

The events of the past week — from the execution of George Floyd by a police officer in Minneapolis to the disproportionate force used by the NYPD on protesters — have provided a painful reminder that the promise of “equal justice under the law” remains out of reach when our approach to law ...

Today’s two photos represent what every neighborhood had in abundance 85 years ago, and what many still have.
06/03/2020
Kaufman's Brooklyn: June 2: Two photos from 'An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets'

Today’s two photos represent what every neighborhood had in abundance 85 years ago, and what many still have.

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

One thing that hasn’t changed despite the coronavirus pandemic — the crowds of people lining up at boardwalk snack bars.
06/02/2020
A walk down the Riegelmann Boardwalk in the age of the coronavirus

One thing that hasn’t changed despite the coronavirus pandemic — the crowds of people lining up at boardwalk snack bars.

A walk on Sunday down the famed Riegelmann Boardwalk, starting at Brighton Beach and ending at the Coney Island amusement areas, revealed that most people are following the rules put in pace to slow the coronavirus spread, with some exceptions. The Boardwalk was shared by bikers, walkers and those w...

"In the Black community, every time we ask for resources or assistance, they send police."
06/02/2020
NYC stores plundered despite curfew; Brooklyn officials criticize City’s response to protests

"In the Black community, every time we ask for resources or assistance, they send police."

NEW YORK (AP) — New York City’s late-night curfew failed to prevent another night of destruction following protests over George Floyd’s death, but will carry through the remainder of the week. Meanwhile, New York City Public Advocate Jumaane Williams and other officials held a news conference ...

"The District Council is doing all that we can to bring relief to those in need and that is why we’ve supported these fo...
06/02/2020
COVID-19 update: ‘Doing all that we can’: Union Carpenters and Catholic Charities team up for food drive

"The District Council is doing all that we can to bring relief to those in need and that is why we’ve supported these food drives in local communities where our members live and work."

On the front lines of the war on COVID-19, there are many civilian heroes going out of their way, as volunteers and contributors. Also, many who are elected to serve are going the extra mile. In this column the Eagle hopes to give our readers an ongoing update on those fighting in the front lines. ....

This week's photos are called "An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets."
06/02/2020
Kaufman's Brooklyn: June 1: Six photos from 'An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets'

This week's photos are called "An ordinary day on Brooklyn’s streets."

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

The package of bills provides a pathway to freedom for inmates in COVID-plagued state prisons.
06/01/2020
Progressive legislative candidates push inmate release measures during COVID crisis

The package of bills provides a pathway to freedom for inmates in COVID-plagued state prisons.

A group of progressive legislative candidates are urging their would-be colleagues in Albany to prioritize a package of bills providing a pathway to freedom for inmates in COVID-plagued state prisons. In a letter to Assembly Speaker Carl Heastie and Senate Majority Leader Andrea Stewart-Cousins, sev...

Here are a series of photos from the weekend's clashes with police and protestors.
06/01/2020
Language of the unheard: Weekend brings outraged street confrontations with police

Here are a series of photos from the weekend's clashes with police and protestors.

Flatbush conflict, Bedford and Church Avenues. Photo: John McCarten   Flatbush conflict, Bedford and Church Avenues. Photo: John McCarten DAILY TOP BROOKLYN NEWS News for those who live, work and play in Brooklyn and beyond Leave this field empty if you're human:   Flatbush conflict, Bedford and C...

"I am tired. Tired of how routine violence against African Americans at the hands of white people has been and continues...
06/01/2020
American Diary: To be Black and a journalist at this moment

"I am tired. Tired of how routine violence against African Americans at the hands of white people has been and continues to be."

For many Americans, “space” means leaving the Earth’s atmosphere and exploring the galaxy. They think of this weekend’s SpaceX launch. Or going where no one has gone before on “Star Trek.” But the concept of space has a different meaning for African Americans. It’s about finding places...

Some are questioning whether tough police tactics against demonstrators are actually making the violence worse rather th...
06/01/2020
Use of force criticized in protests about police brutality

Some are questioning whether tough police tactics against demonstrators are actually making the violence worse rather than quelling it.

As protests grip the nation, officers have doused crowds with pepper spray, struck protesters with batons, steered police cars into throngs, shoved demonstrators and screamed curses. Some police action has been directed against people smashing windows, breaking into stores and burning cars, but many...

"ICE’s continued efforts to arrest immigrants at or near state courthouses endanger us all and threaten every New Yorker...
05/29/2020
Attorney General James’ amicus brief says ICE makes our courts less safe

"ICE’s continued efforts to arrest immigrants at or near state courthouses endanger us all and threaten every New Yorker’s safety."

Attorney General Letitia James filed an amicus brief on Tuesday as part of a coalition of 14 attorneys general who are hoping to keep the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement out of courthouses unless they have a judicial warrant or court order. The coalition has urged the courts to uphold a pre...

Best-of-five round would be held in undetermined hub city
05/29/2020
Under prospective NHL restart, Isles would face off with Panthers in qualifier series

Best-of-five round would be held in undetermined hub city

The New York Islanders clinched their second Eastern Conference playoff spot in as many seasons Tuesday evening. And this time, all they had to do to get it was sit on their respective couches and watch NHL Commissioner Gary Bettman during an interview on NBC Sports Network. Bettman officially revea...

Pandemic stokes upsurge in city bicycling, DOT data reveals
05/29/2020
Pandemic stokes upsurge in city bicycling, DOT data reveals

Pandemic stokes upsurge in city bicycling, DOT data reveals

There seems to be little doubt that the coronavirus pandemic, and the fears it has created, have created a big interest in bike riding in Brooklyn and the city as a whole. This trend, reported on as early as mid-March, has given rise to other concerns, such as the potential for accidents, crowding i...

Today’s two photos take a look at an important Flatbush institution that helped countless boys – and their families – ge...
05/29/2020
Kaufman's Brooklyn: May 28: Two 'Scenes from the Great Depression'

Today’s two photos take a look at an important Flatbush institution that helped countless boys – and their families – get through the Depression.

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

"Being Black in America should not be a death sentence."
05/28/2020
Minneapolis police-linked death draws comparisons with NY’s Eric Garner case

"Being Black in America should not be a death sentence."

Four Minneapolis officers involved in the arrest of a Black man who died in police custody were fired Tuesday, hours after a bystander’s video showed an officer kneeling on the handcuffed man’s neck, even after he pleaded that he could not breathe and stopped moving. George Floyd’s death Monda...

Brooklyn Center nursing home provides hospital beds as NYC nears reopening
05/28/2020
Brooklyn Center nursing home provides hospital beds as NYC nears reopening

Brooklyn Center nursing home provides hospital beds as NYC nears reopening

New York City now meets almost all of the state-mandated metrics necessary for reopening, According to a Regional Monitoring Dashboard updated Tuesday. The two metrics yet to be fulfilled are the ratio of contact tracers to residents, and the share of total beds available in case of a new upsurge of...

"The video out of Central Park is racism, plain and simple."
05/28/2020
Woman fired after backlash from racist park confrontation

"The video out of Central Park is racism, plain and simple."

NEW YORK (AP) — The verbal dispute between a white woman with an unleashed dog and a Black man bird watching in Central Park might normally have gone unnoticed in a city preoccupied by the coronavirus pandemic. That changed when birdwatcher Christian Cooper pulled out his phone and captured Amy Co...

"Stop abusing New York."
05/28/2020
NYC alone in state keeping economy closed; Cuomo seeks infrastructure jump-start

"Stop abusing New York."

NEW YORK (AP) — Long Island became the latest region of New York to begin easing some restrictions put in place to curb the spread of the coronavirus. Gov. Andrew Cuomo lobbied the president for help with transportation projects. New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio said efforts to fight the virus h...

These two photos show a couple of the ways people coped with the Great Depression.
05/27/2020
Kaufman's Brooklyn: May 26: Two 'Scenes from the Great Depression'

These two photos show a couple of the ways people coped with the Great Depression.

My father, Irving Kaufman (1910 – 1982), was a professional photographer who started in Brooklyn in the mid 1930s working for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. He captured thousands of images of Brooklyn through the 1950s. I have recently digitized a great many of them. My father’s profile can be found ...

"We want people to be able to watch sports," Gov. Andrew Cuomo said.
05/27/2020
'A return to normalcy': Under new guidelines, Nets return to Sunset Park practice facility

"We want people to be able to watch sports," Gov. Andrew Cuomo said.

The long road back to some sense of normalcy for the Brooklyn Nets began Tuesday when the team re-opened its HSS Training Center in Sunset Park for voluntary player workouts. Idle due to the coronavirus pandemic since pulling off a thrilling 104-102 victory in Los Angeles against LeBron James and th...

Masks In The Wild​ will provide artists with a stipend and materials to create one-of-a-kind masks that will be availabl...
05/27/2020
COVID-19 update: ‘Masks in the wild’: Program calls for artists to create free masks for New Yorkers

Masks In The Wild​ will provide artists with a stipend and materials to create one-of-a-kind masks that will be available to New Yorkers and essential workers for free.

On the front lines of the war on COVID-19, there are many civilian heroes going out of their way, as volunteers and contributors. Also, many who are elected to serve are going the extra mile. In this column the Eagle hopes to give our readers an ongoing update on those fighting in the front lines. ....

Gov. Andrew Cuomo said the state was now "decidedly in the reopening phase."
05/27/2020
As NY reopens, state death toll continues downtrend while nation approaches 100,000 dead

Gov. Andrew Cuomo said the state was now "decidedly in the reopening phase."

NEW YORK (AP) — The daily coronavirus death toll increased slightly, though the trend continues down, Gov. Andrew Cuomo said this weekend. The daily death toll has hovered around 100 over the past week, a significant drop from the peak in early April when the number seemed more likely to hit 1,000...

ChamberQUEER, an LGBTQ+ chamber music series based in Brooklyn, has announced its inaugural digital season.
05/23/2020
COVID-19 update: 'ChamberQUEERantine': ChamberQUEER’s digital chamber music series celebrates LGBTQ+ artists

ChamberQUEER, an LGBTQ+ chamber music series based in Brooklyn, has announced its inaugural digital season.

On the front lines of the war on COVID-19, there are many civilian heroes going out of their way, as volunteers and contributors. Also, many who are elected to serve are going the extra mile. In this column the Eagle hopes to give our readers an ongoing update on those fighting in the front lines. ....

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I grew up on State St, between Bond and Nevins St. Even though I was always an avid reader of non-fiction news and books, I missed out, not reading the Brooklyn Eagle. Today, I can't wait to read the daily email I receive from it. When I read it, it's like being back in Brooklyn (which I miss very much) for sure!
A refrigerated truck parked outside Wyckoff Hospital in Bushwick, serving as turn-based morgue in an attempt to alleviate funeral homes in Brooklyn neighborhoods during the Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. #Brooklyn #Bushwick #coronavirus #COVID19 #EmergencyVehicle #FirstResponders #FlattenTheCurve #HealthcareWorkers #Hospital #HospitalPersonnel #MedicalExaminer #NewYork #NYC #OverflowTrailer #PPE #ProtectiveGear #quarantine #RefrigeratedTruck #SocialDistancing #TemporaryMorgue #trailer #WyckoffHeightsMedicalCenter © Erik McGregor - [email protected] - 917-225-8963
ATTENTION: Ozone Park Residents Block Association During these unprecedented times while we ALL try to navigate these uncharted waters, we have opened up our Facebook group page Ozone Park Residents Block Association-Cityline Ozone Park Civilian Patrol for everyone that lives in our Howard Beach-Kew Gardens-Ozone Park-Richmond Hill-South Ozone Park-Woodhaven-& Cityline Brooklyn communities all in the of neighborhoods of Queens Community Board 9 & 10. We have posted everything relevant, credible, validated, and verified for everyone to share and use. We do NOT allow bigotry, hatred, racism, or prejudice of any kind, post or comments. We block these kinds of people right away. We do NOT allow political bantering commentary or anything that can cause controversy. We welcome everyone into our group, of ALL religions and all walks of life to come and receive the information needed during this crisis. Please click below and join us SHARE-RESHARE-POST-REPOST ON ALL TIMELINES/GROUPS/PAGES, TWITTER, SNAPCHAT ETC Help us get the word out to our residents in our communities. CLICK NOW AND JOIN US https://www.facebook.com/groups/Ozoneparkvoice/
I have just found in a family file box a Brooklyn Eagle Oct 26 1841-a full newspaper....any ideas
Local Brooklyn Medical supply store Globe Surgical has N95 Masks
test cotton swabs for contamination of russian chinese made emf powered microchips. put the swabs near an electromagnetic field get a microscope and see if you see moving particles. there is no covid 19 virus. there is emf powered microchips which enable the brain to receive wifi signals. see my fb pg. Covid 19 is a Russian Chinese Fabrication. Both countries have sent their armies here in Civilian clothing and some modified vehicles to deploy emf powered microchips which enable wifi control of the brain. They deploy a gas with this weapon which may be causing some respiratory distress in older people. They have been deploying this weapon around the world for close to three years and have infiltrated health care communities to deploy, monitor, and disinform countries about a virus that does not exist. This is real counter intelligence. Due to the weapon infecting the brain and affecting thought processes the weapon is almost unstoppable. Testing for covid-19 may infect you with these microchips. cotton swabs to the nose and mouth. see Lloyd Trapezoid page
Good Morning Brooklyn Eagle. Shawn Huang Puerto Rico.
Everyone should wear their NYPD sweatshirt in support of the police. This is my sweatshirt from September 11, 2001.
In late December of 2019, former Brooklyn Center resident, 76 year-old Weeksville resident Gennadiy Vassakov received a gift that he would never have anticapated. Vassakov, who nearly has nothing except a box spring bed in his tenement apartment, had been dealt a bad hand health-wise and his luck was nowhere to be found until a nurse named Shereena came into his life. Shereena Singh, RN, a 23 year-old charge nurse at Brooklyn Center, the 215-bed nursing and rehabilitation facility on Coney Island Avenue, decided to purchase, out of her own money, a mattress, comforter set, bed sheet and pillow, all for $200. This wasn't generosity due to it being the holiday season, this defines the person Shereena is twelve months out of the year. Mr. Vassakov was receiving his rehabilitation and overall care since December 12 at the Center, after being treated for two weeks at Interfaith Medical Center on Atlantic Avenue. He slipped and fell in his telephone-less Weeksville tenement apartment where there was flood due to a broken pipe. To understand Nurse Singh's deep generosity, one also needs to know of Gennadiy Vassakov's many health issues that he deals with. Suffering from many physical ailments like hypertension, prostate cancer, a stroke, chronic constipation, duration, kidney issues, chronic vomiting plus a history of head injuries due to falling, Mr. Vassakov rarely steps out of the red. [PHOTO: Former Brooklyn Center resident Gennadiy Vassakov (in red) surrounded by Brooklyn Center team, left to right, Administrator Elie Schiff, Vassakov, Recreation Director Rabiah Ghani and Charge Nurse Sherrena Singh, RN)
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WHY DO MOST EGALITARIANS GET THEIR HISTORY OF SOCIALISM COMPLETELY BACKWARD? Background Many "levelers" (economic egalitarians or collectivists) believe that "Socialism is the total opposite of capitalism/imperialism. It is the rejection of empire and white supremacy. Socialism is the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat, and the eradication of the social system based on profit. Socialism means control of the productive forces for the good of the whole community instead of the few who live on hilltops and in mansions. Socialism means priorities based on human need instead of human greed. Socialism creates the conditions for a decent and creative quality of life for all." Of course, the number of admitted adherents to this definition diminishes when these collectivists learn that this rendering of socialism comes from the Weather Underground in its 1974 Prairie Fire Manifesto. [Note: Their chagrin only multiplies when they learn the motto of Vladimir Lein's newspaper, "The Left Voice" was "A single spark can start a prairie fire".] Ayn Rand defined collectivism in 1944 magazine article ("The Only Path To Tomorrow") as "... the subjugation of the individual to the group ... Collectivism holds that man must be chained to collective action and collective thought for the sake of what is called 'the common good'". Currently, there is an almost endless drumbeat of anti-capitalist and pro-socialist articles in almost all newspapers, magazines and on many websites. One goal of these numerous essays is to mislead the American electorate regarding the history of socialism both in the US and around the world. Perhaps several examples will suffice to demonstrate this point. The New York Times on July 6, 2019, in its Sunday Review section printed Sitaraman & Alsort as follows: "The struggle between capitalism and socialism is back." And that "Americans don't need to resign themselves to vicious capitalism ..." In the Aug. 12, 2019 edition of the Los Angeles Review of Books Prof. Christian Fuchs cited three left-wing authors to his readers to remind them that "... liberalism and capitalism have inherent fascist potential (and) that fascism is a terroristic version of capitalism." Inexplicably, many (most?) redistributionists apparently choose to ignore the clear-cut results of socialism's many actual historic experiments which can be handily recounted. Socialism (millenarian collectivism) traces its roots to 1789 and the French Revolution which is commonly known as "The Terror". Of course, this led solely to tyranny and ultimately to the guillotine.[One must recognize that the vast majority of those who were beheaded in France were from the middle and lower classes and not from the aristocracy.] (See: "Tyrants" by Waller Newell) Beginning in the 1820s there was a wave of cooperatives (socialist experiments) formed in the US and Europe led by men like Robert Owen but most had failed by 1840. The average life span of these many "co-ops" was only two years. [See: https://www.c-span.org/video/?460856-1/heaven-earth ]. The Socialist Party of America was formed in 1901 by Eugene Debs and Mr. Debs (from 1904 till 1920) never got more than 6% of the vote in any presidential election. From 1924 through 1948 Debs was replaced by Norman Thomas whose election results were also always in the low single digits. [Note: Interestingly, Mr. Thomas was always (like George Orwell) rabidly anti-communist and some fear that their combined virulence may not have rubbed off on many of today's left-wing collectivist authors since it is suspected that some of these socialists may actually hold neo-Marxist views.] Since 1948 the Socialist Party in the US has only steadily faded away. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Party_of_America ]. In fact, the Democratic Socialists of America today boasts of less than 60,000 members which are a paltry few although their membership has grown from only 6,000 to 56,000 in just two years. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Party_of_America ]. Economic historians cite three face-to-face "experiments" since WW II in which capitalism and socialism can be directly compared and these are West Germany vs. East Germany after 1945; China vs. Taiwan after 1949 and North Korea vs. South Korea after 1952. Suffice it to say that socialism has never measured up very well anywhere. [Note: Some experts in economic history are today examining Venezuela vs. Chile and many are reaching the very same conclusion.] On the other hand, capitalism has lifted over one billion people out of abject poverty in just the last 12 years. [See: https://www.economist.com/leaders/2013/06/01/towards-the-end-of-poverty ]. All of this might lead some to ask -- What took capitalism so long to work its magic on much of the developing world? And economic history is also quite clear on this point. In 1947 India after its independence from Great Britain opted for socialism. Indeed, socialism is mandated by the Indian Constitution and for more than 40 years India was the world's largest social democracy. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism_in_India ]. In 1949 China followed suit but of course, selected only collectivism and not democracy. Obviously, capitalism could not work its wonders in a socialist nation. In 1978 after Mao's death China adopted market-based reforms and one need not recount the upward explosion in human economic well-being that followed. India saw the resulting skyrocketing increase in overall living standards in China and instituted market reforms of their own starting in 1991. Since then these two nations have lifted a combined one billion of their citizens out of subsistence poverty. [See: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/china/overview ]. In 1945 Clement Atlee defeated Winston Churchill in Great Britain and quickly proceeded to nationalize most of that country's major industries. By the 1970s the whole world was talking about the "British Disease" and the "Sick Man of Europe". This led to the election in 1979 of Margaret Thatcher who insisted that "No theory of government was ever given a fairer test or a more prolonged experiment than democratic socialism received in Britain. Yet it was a miserable failure in every respect..." [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_British_disease ]. Indeed, Mrs. Thatcher insisted that "To cure the British disease with socialism was like trying to cure leukemia with leeches." [See: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/margaret_thatcher_127092 ]. Israel is another instructive example. This new country's founding principles (Zionism) took a socialist form of communal organization (kibbutzim). In the early 1980s, Israel suffered from hyperinflation (445% In 1984). In 1985 Israel adopted an Economic Stabilization Plan (wage and price controls) which failed. Then Bibi Netanyahu, during his first term (1996 - 1999) began instituting market-based reforms. In 1999 he lost and upon his later return as Prime Minister, he slashed public sector spending, privatized and deregulated industry. He also drastically cut taxes and reformed Israel's labor laws. Today Israel has risen from a relatively poor country to a growing wealthy nation. [See: https://www.israel21c.org/israel-the-history-of-an-economic-miracle/ ]. During the 1960s much of sub-Saharan Africa chose collectivism and all of these nations then entered a period of rising abject poverty. A single set of statistics tells the entire story regarding socialism in sub-Saharan Africa. When the British and the other colonizers left Africa the poverty rate stood at 11%. By 1998 under their new indigenous socialist governments this figure had skyrocketed to 66% and now as some of these nations have begun to re-introduce market-based reforms this percentage has fallen to 20% today. Still way too high but currently moving in the right direction. [See: https://books.google.com/books?id=2T_RbtTslzEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Dead+Aid:+Why+Aid+Is+Not+Working+and+How+There+Is+a+Better+Way+for+Africa&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie-KSrjZLjAhWBVs0KHbzTAi4Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=11%20per%20cent&f=false ] Next take Sweden, once one of the most socialistic of the Nordic countries, as another case study. Some years ago the Swedes opted for social democracy and since 1981 Sweden' annual GDP growth rate has averaged only 0.56%. [See: https://tradingeconomics.com/sweden/gdp-growth ]. In other words, the growth in human economic well-being in Sweden was virtually stagnant. Then in 1992, a major financial crisis hit Sweden as interest rates soared to a brief high of 500%. [See: https://finance.townhall.com/columnists/markskousen/2019/08/15/surprise-surprise-100-of-workers-in-this-country-invest-in-stocks-n2551730 ]. As a result, the Swedes became very disenchanted with the results of their collectivism and began converting their economy back to a more market-based system. The Swedes cut their income tax. They also abolished their wealth tax, their inheritance tax, and their property tax. They reduced the corporate tax from 28% to 22% and the new coalition government has recently promised to make further reductions. This one-time social democracy has lowered its tax to GDP ratio from 52% (one of the world’s highest) to 45% and the new government has announced still more cuts for 2020. The overall result is that in 1975 fifty percent of Swedish companies were government-owned and today this figure has been cut in half and Sweden is now the fourth richest country in the world in trems of per capita wealth. [See: https://fee.org/articles/is-sweden-socialist-no-but/ ]. Turning to Denmark, while Lars Lokke Rasmussen was Prime Minister he stated that "I know that some people in the US associate the Nordic model with some sort of socialism. Therefore, I would like to make one thing clear. Denmark is far from a planned economy. Denmark is a market economy." [See: https://renreport.com/will-favourable-views-of-socialism-in-young-people-last/ ]. Indeed, according to the Economic Freedom Index, all of the countries in Scandinavia are far more capitalist than socialist. [See: https://www.heritage.org/index/ ]. All Nordic countries have no minimum wage and each offers full school choice. In addition, Denmark and Sweden have greatly reduced unemployment benefits. Some redistributionalists still cling to Norway as the final redoubt of Nordic democratic socialism but this tiny country adheres to its mix of capitalism and socialism solely because of that nation's massive offshore oil and natural gas deposits. In May of 1963 Norway claimed the petroleum reserves off of its coast and in 1969 they struck oil which now produces 1,600,000 barrels per day. As a result, Norway's GDP rose from $12 billion to $65 billion in only ten years. The government wisely formed a sovereign wealth fund which today is worth $1 trillion the largest in the world. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_in_Norway ]. No socialist in France had won the presidency from the inception of the Fifth Republic in 1958 until 1981 when Francois Mitterrand ascended to that high office. As president, Mr. Mitterrand quickly implemented a program of nationalization coupled with an economic stimulus designed to jump-start France's flagging economy. His election could not have come at a worse time. The world was suffering from a new phenomenon called "stagflation" and in less than two years after his election, President Mitterrand was forced to sharply curtail his collectivist efforts. [See: http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/socFrance.htm ]. Even the well known Slovenian philosopher, Slavoj Zizek, (who is a self described "political radical") admits that "Social democracy is of another era" and that "A simple return to old (20th century) social democratic welfare states can not work" due to "digitalization through new forms of science (and) new forms of liberal capitalism." [See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7JgfB8PaAk ]. From 1998 to 2015 fifteen Latin American countries elected socialist presidents in a trend called the "Pink Tide". [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_tide ]. Now, Oxfam reports that Latin America has remained the most unequal region in the world. [See: https://blogs.oxfam.org/en/blogs/17-12-18-latin-america-remains-most-unequal-region-world ]. Also, according to the Igarape Institute, Latin America has persisted in being the most violent place on the planet. [See: https://igarape.org.br/en/latin-americas-poverty-is-down-but-violence-is-up-why/ ]. The UN asserts that Latin America has had no reduction in poverty and that extreme poverty has increased to its highest level since 2008. [See: https://www.cepal.org/en/pressreleases/poverty-latin-america-remained-steady-2017-extreme-poverty-increased-highest-level ]. Corruption has continued unabated and all of this has led to a counter wave that includes new conservative leaders in Brazi, Argentina, Guatemala, El Salvador, Columbia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay. [See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v-f0nfQyi4 ]. Some of the people of Latin America who tried collectivism did not like what they got. This is especially true in Venezuela. Let's examine Iran. The 1979 revolution promised three things: independence, social justice, and democracy & freedom. After 40 years there has been a 17-fold increase in the number of Iranians living in slums. Iran's Gini coefficient has remained high while a growing sense of disillusionment and frustration forcefully erupted in the Green Movement in 2009, as well as, another upheaval in 2017-2018. [See: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2019/07/11/four-decades-later-did-the-iranian-revolution-fulfill-its-promises/ ]. Arab socialism (Ba'athism) began in Syria in the 1940s and later spread to Iraq but neither emphasized pure Marxism nor class struggle. In the 1970s neo-Ba'athism evolved and morphed into Assadism and Saddamism with their accompanying fascism and racism. Since then Saddam has been removed while Assad's son has been fighting a prolonged civil war against rebels who strive for freedom and economic growth. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba%27athism ]. The book, "Heaven on Earth" (2nd edition 2019) summarizes all of this with "Socialism was man's most ambitious attempt to supplant religion with a doctrine claiming to ground itself in 'science'. Each failure to create societies of abundance or give birth to 'The New Man' inspired more searching for a path to the promised land: revolution, communes, social democracy, communism, fascism, Arab socialism, African socialism. None worked and some exacted a staggering human toll. Then, after two centuries of wishful thinking and bitter disappointment socialism imploded in a fin de siècle drama of falling walls and collapsing regimes. It was an astonishing denouement but what followed was no less astonishing. After a hiatus of several decades, new voices were raised, as if innocent of all that had come before, proposing to try it all over again." Summary Thus the economic record is clear. Over the last 230 years, socialism has caused only poverty, misery and human suffering. [See" https://iea.org.uk/publications/socialism-the-failed-idea-that-never-dies/ ] While capitalism (in the opinion of many, humankind's greatest invention since the wheel) has been slashing poverty as the next graph clearly documents. In a 2018 article in Foreign Affairs Magazine the esteemed historian, Prof. Walter Russel Mead, offered that over a 35 year period our nation had been plagued by "Ineffective politicians, frequent scandals, racial backsliding, polarized and irresponsible news media, populists spouting quack economic remedies, growing suspicion of elites and experts, frightening outbreaks of violence, major job losses, high profile terrorist attacks, anti-immigrant agitation, rising inequality and the appearance of a new class of super-powered billionaires in finance and technology-heavy industries." But, Prof. Mead was writing about the period in American history from 1865 till 1901 after the end of the US Civil War. Like the movie "Groundhog Day" history only repeats itself but no one ever seems to notice that human economic improvement and overall well-being only continue to spiral ever upward. Does anyone really want to go back to living in caves eating nuts, berries, and roots, scavenging dead meat and consuming an occasional fresh kill where everyone is mostly equal? Given an informed choice, almost all of us would, one strongly suspects, opt for individualism and capitalism every time.