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The Bowdoin Orient

The Bowdoin Orient The nation's oldest continuously published college weekly. http://bowdoinorient.com/
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The Bowdoin Orient is a student-run weekly publication dedicated to providing news and media relevant to the College community. Editorially independent of the College and its administrators, the Orient pursues such content freely and thoroughly, following professional journalistic standards in writing and reporting. The Orient is committed to serving as an open forum for thoughtful and diverse discussion and debate on issues of interest to the College community.

The Bowdoin Orient is a student-run weekly publication dedicated to providing news and media relevant to the College community. Editorially independent of the College and its administrators, the Orient pursues such content freely and thoroughly, following professional journalistic standards in writing and reporting. The Orient is committed to serving as an open forum for thoughtful and diverse discussion and debate on issues of interest to the College community.

Operating as usual

Mike Ranen announced testing protocols upon returning from spring break and the potential for easing masking and testing...
03/13/2022
College announces Covid-19 protocols for spring break – The Bowdoin Orient

Mike Ranen announced testing protocols upon returning from spring break and the potential for easing masking and testing restrictions if cases remain low.

In an email to the student body on Thursday, Covid-19 Resource Coordinator Mike Ranen announced that all students are expected to take an antigen test before traveling back to the College after spring…

The Eisenhower Forum at Bowdoin hosts Alfred Cowles Professor of Political Science and Professor of Philosophy at Yale U...
03/11/2022
Eisenhower Forum hosts Yale professor Steven B. Smith for virtual lecture on patriotism in modern times – The Bowdoin Orient

The Eisenhower Forum at Bowdoin hosts Alfred Cowles Professor of Political Science and Professor of Philosophy at Yale University Steven B. Smith, speaking on the topic of patriotism in modern times.

On Monday afternoon, Steven B. Smith, Alfred Cowles Professor of Political Science and Professor of Philosophy at Yale University, gave a virtual lecture hosted by the Eisenhower Forum…

“While there is more socioeconomic diversity at Bowdoin now than in its sordid past, let’s not pretend that the elitism,...
03/10/2022
Is it really equity, Clayton? – The Bowdoin Orient

“While there is more socioeconomic diversity at Bowdoin now than in its sordid past, let’s not pretend that the elitism, privilege and exclusion that it was founded on isn’t here anymore,” argues Sophie Wilson ’22.

When I first heard about the new MacBook initiative, I was thrilled. As a member of the first group of students to receive and benefit from the school-wide iPad initiative, it was heartwarming to hear…

The start of spring sports was preceded by a sixth place finish for Nordic Skiing in the final Eastern Intercollegiate S...
03/10/2022
Highlight Reel for March 4 – The Bowdoin Orient

The start of spring sports was preceded by a sixth place finish for Nordic Skiing in the final Eastern Intercollegiate Ski Association and a 16th in the nation ranked Women’s Squash team

NATIONAL TREASURE Following its performance in the Kurtz Cup Division of College Squash Association Nationals, the women’s squash team ended the year ranked 16th in the nation. Going into the matches…

“We tell women to carry guns, carry mace, carry pepper spray, to protect them[selves] from [men], and that is why this c...
03/10/2022
Don McPherson delivers talk on gender violence, masculinity to Bowdoin athletes – The Bowdoin Orient

“We tell women to carry guns, carry mace, carry pepper spray, to protect them[selves] from [men], and that is why this conversation has to be about engaging men in a positive, sustainable way,” said Don McPherson to student-athletes in a talk on “Relationship Excellence.”

Bowdoin student athletes and their coaches gathered in Kresge Auditorium on Tuesday night for NCAA-mandated gender violence training led by author, speaker and former Syracuse quarterback Don…

James Little ‘19 created the “Better Bowdoin Directory” in 2018 as an improvement to the school-sponsored directory. Thi...
03/09/2022
Bowdoin IT shuts down Better Bowdoin Directory – The Bowdoin Orient

James Little ‘19 created the “Better Bowdoin Directory” in 2018 as an improvement to the school-sponsored directory. This week, the site was taken down for privacy reasons at the request of the Bowdoin IT Department.

Users of the underground college directory known as the “Better Bowdoin Directory” were greeted by an upsetting message Wednesday when they tried to visit the site. Instead of the usual search bars…

Ellie Chan ’25 explains the cognitive dissonance created by pornography: “The conflation of sexualization and pornograph...
03/09/2022
Trick or treat: how pornography shapes desire – The Bowdoin Orient

Ellie Chan ’25 explains the cognitive dissonance created by pornography: “The conflation of sexualization and pornographization—and the representation of these as democratized desires—suggests that pornography portrays the community’s sexual desires. In other words, pornography is equated with sex rather than a particular kind of sex.”

As Cady Heron says in Mean Girls, “in girl world, Halloween is the one time of year a girl can dress like a total slut, and no other girl can say anything about it.” The sexualization of Halloween has…

Charlotte Hodge ‘25 helped the Polar Bears finish in fourth place at the Track and Field Championships with her record b...
03/09/2022
Polar Bear of the Week: Charlotte Hodge ’25 – The Bowdoin Orient

Charlotte Hodge ‘25 helped the Polar Bears finish in fourth place at the Track and Field Championships with her record breaking pole vault

At the New England Division III Indoor Track and Field Championships this past weekend, Charlotte Hodge ’25 helped lead the women’s team to its best result since 2012. Her victory in the pole vault…

Benjamin Felser '22, Ethan Strull '22 and Noah Gans '22 host the first of three conversations in their new series: “Heal...
03/09/2022
BOC Hosts discussion on healthy masculinity in the outdoors – The Bowdoin Orient

Benjamin Felser '22, Ethan Strull '22 and Noah Gans '22 host the first of three conversations in their new series: “Healthy Masculinities in the Outdoors”.

On Tuesday evening, a group of male- and non-binary-identifying students gathered at the Schwartz Outdoor Leadership Center to discuss the role healthy masculinity plays in the outdoors.

“[LePage’s candidacy] can’t be ignored as someone else's problem when civil liberties are being treated as subordinate t...
03/08/2022
LePage, back on stage? – The Bowdoin Orient

“[LePage’s candidacy] can’t be ignored as someone else's problem when civil liberties are being treated as subordinate to financial progress and clout. To attend college in Maine means to live among the people who worry about what a change in leadership may mean for their wellbeing,” writes Emma Fortier ’24.

Paul Richard LePage could potentially be Maine’s governor again. Lepage is the man who vetoed Medicaid expansion seven times and who bragged about an evidence binder of racially-targeted crimes that…

Bowdoin Women in Mathematics hosts Mathematician Wanlin Li to discuss her career path from a first-gen college student i...
03/08/2022
Wanlin Li gives talks on number theory and her career – The Bowdoin Orient

Bowdoin Women in Mathematics hosts Mathematician Wanlin Li to discuss her career path from a first-gen college student in China to a PhD, research, and professorship.

Mathematician Wanlin Li from the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques in Montreal delivered two talks to the Bowdoin community over Zoom on Tuesday. She first presented a lecture, “Diophantine Problems…

Despite their loss against Amherst, Bowdoin Women’s hockey had a season to be proud of and were thankful to be back toge...
03/08/2022
Women’s hockey remains proud of season’s success – The Bowdoin Orient

Despite their loss against Amherst, Bowdoin Women’s hockey had a season to be proud of and were thankful to be back together

Speaking with women’s hockey players, it’s difficult to tell that the team lost to Amherst College this weekend in the first round of the playoffs. Despite the loss, Bowdoin outshot Amherst by an…

Jane Olsen ’24 shares all there is to love about the Bowdoin Pines, a trail across Bath Road which is “quintessentially ...
03/08/2022
The secret in the pines: appreciating nature close to home – The Bowdoin Orient

Jane Olsen ’24 shares all there is to love about the Bowdoin Pines, a trail across Bath Road which is “quintessentially Maine.”

The Bowdoin Pines is a quaint trail on the edge of campus that provides access to nature only minutes from dorms, classrooms or whichever Brunswick spaces you most frequently occupy. With no need for…

“[Harwood] is well-known as a person of great integrity, and a really strong leader… Most importantly, [he] is the perfe...
03/08/2022
Ex-state police chief to join Office of Safety and Security as second-in-command – The Bowdoin Orient

“[Harwood] is well-known as a person of great integrity, and a really strong leader… Most importantly, [he] is the perfect fit for Bowdoin.” Randy Nichols advocates for Bowdoin’s soon-to-be Assistant Director of Safety and Security.

By the end of the month, the Office of Safety and Security will have a second former high-ranking state police officer in its senior leadership. Lt. Col. William “Bill” Harwood, a 30-year veteran of…

Bowdoin Men’s Hockey ended their three-win streak against Connecticut College in the first round of NESCAC tournament, b...
03/07/2022
Men’s hockey reflects on early exit from playoffs – The Bowdoin Orient

Bowdoin Men’s Hockey ended their three-win streak against Connecticut College in the first round of NESCAC tournament, but has high expectations for next season.

After making it to the first round of the NESCAC Championships, the men’s hockey team concluded its season with a record of 8-10-4 (8-7-3 NESCAC). The team’s season ended prematurely in a surprising…

200 years ago student dormitory Maine Hall burned down in a fire.
03/07/2022
This month in Bowdoin history – The Bowdoin Orient

200 years ago student dormitory Maine Hall burned down in a fire.

Civil Rights Movement comes to Bowdoin, students participate across nation From March 7 to March 21, 1965, thousands of nonviolent civil rights demonstrators marched from Selma to Montgomery, Ala.

From Selma to Brunswick, read about Bowdoin Students during the Civil Rights movement.
03/06/2022
This month in Bowdoin history – The Bowdoin Orient

From Selma to Brunswick, read about Bowdoin Students during the Civil Rights movement.

Civil Rights Movement comes to Bowdoin, students participate across nation From March 7 to March 21, 1965, thousands of nonviolent civil rights demonstrators marched from Selma to Montgomery, Ala.

Despite roadblocks from Covid-19, Bowdoin Curling gains enough points to compete in the USA College Curling Competition
03/06/2022
Curling team advances to National Championship – The Bowdoin Orient

Despite roadblocks from Covid-19, Bowdoin Curling gains enough points to compete in the USA College Curling Competition

Six members of the Bowdoin curling team will begin their spring breaks by traveling to Fargo, ND to compete in the USA College Curling Championship from March 11 to 13. Bowdoin enters the tournament…

Tianyi Xu ‘23 reviews “The Good Fight” a political television series streaming on Paramount +.
03/06/2022
The explosive satire of ‘The Good Fight’ – The Bowdoin Orient

Tianyi Xu ‘23 reviews “The Good Fight” a political television series streaming on Paramount +.

When Donald Trump ascended to the White House in 2017, the creators of CBS’s “The Good Fight” found themselves unable to continue its feel-good vision of an “optimistic” second season. “The current…

“Last week we were given some strong, necessary medicine by trusted doctors who know what they are doing. We were able t...
03/06/2022
So long, and thanks for the all the fish – The Bowdoin Orient

“Last week we were given some strong, necessary medicine by trusted doctors who know what they are doing. We were able to engage with people who care about this community, and to whom we will turn even more in the coming months and years. This week, however, we had doughnuts stuffed down our throat by the pastry-chef whom Socrates warned us about in the Gorgias,” writes Professor Robert Sobak.

On Friday, February 25 the best of what Bowdoin can be was on full display. Professors Laura Henry, Page Herrlinger, Reed Johnson and Mira Nikolova guided students, faculty and staff—all packed like…

Arthur Brooks, inaugural Joseph McKeen Visiting Fellow, spoke on “Life Lessons from Covid-19” to the Bowdoin community.
03/06/2022
Arthur Brooks speaks on love, happiness and change – The Bowdoin Orient

Arthur Brooks, inaugural Joseph McKeen Visiting Fellow, spoke on “Life Lessons from Covid-19” to the Bowdoin community.

On Wednesday night, Arthur Brooks spoke on “Life Lessons from Covid-19” to members of the Bowdoin and local communities. After making friendly small talk with President Clayton Rose as everyone got…

RISE, an annual production featuring the stories of Bowdoin women, is back in person for the first time since February 2...
03/05/2022
Rise up for RISE – The Bowdoin Orient

RISE, an annual production featuring the stories of Bowdoin women, is back in person for the first time since February 2020.

Many campus events have taken a back seat due to pandemic restrictions, including RISE. An annual production sharing the personal narratives and experiences of Bowdoin women, RISE will take place in…

Nora Sullivan-Horner ’24 gives her advice on dealing with loss, guilt and forgiveness.
03/03/2022
The things I’ve learned – The Bowdoin Orient

Nora Sullivan-Horner ’24 gives her advice on dealing with loss, guilt and forgiveness.

I don’t know who needs to hear this. Maybe just myself. So to whomever I’m writing for, I hope this finds you well. I hope what I say brings you comfort or insight. At the very least, I hope you know…

Sophia Danenberg, the first African American and first Black woman to summit Mount Everest, explored the connection betw...
03/03/2022
BOC hosts talk on representation of Black women in the outdoors – The Bowdoin Orient

Sophia Danenberg, the first African American and first Black woman to summit Mount Everest, explored the connection between privilege and the outdoors in a Zoom screening to Bowdoin students.

On Tuesday night in Roux Lantern, the Bowdoin Outing Club (BOC) screened “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough, But It’s Complicated,” a virtual conversation about the representation of Black women in the…

The College hosts Dr. Aomawa Shields as the 2022 Kibbe Science Lecturer for a talk titled: “The Search for Life (and A L...
03/02/2022
Aomawa Shields Visits Bowdoin as 2022 Kibbe Science Lecturer – The Bowdoin Orient

The College hosts Dr. Aomawa Shields as the 2022 Kibbe Science Lecturer for a talk titled: “The Search for Life (and A Life) on Planets, Including This One.”

On Wednesday evening, Dr. Aomawa Shields delivered this year’s Kibbe Science Lecture titled “The Search for Life (and A Life) on Planets, Including This One.” The event was held in Kresge Auditorium…

”The ‘medium is the message,’…In the case of modern-day headphones, the medium has taken a deciding stake in how we expe...
03/02/2022
The artificial environment created by headphones – The Bowdoin Orient

”The ‘medium is the message,’…In the case of modern-day headphones, the medium has taken a deciding stake in how we experience the world,” writes Saul Cuevas-Landeros ’23

When Bose released its QuietComfort 2 headphones, it successfully introduced a world without noise for the masses. These headphones were one of the first to silence the outside world while not…

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September 23, 2021 Ladies & Gentlemen: Re: Let's Hear Your Story (LHYS) My name is Tony Lombardo. I have been afflicted with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) for over forty-one years and wheelchair bound for twenty-one years. To say the least, it certainly has not been an easy road. Along the way, I have met numerous individuals who taught me the true meaning of the word COURAGE. As a means of "paying it forward," I established Let's Hear Your Story (LHYS). Our mantra is “How We Conquer Life's Obstacles.” We collect and post personal survival stories on the LHYS site as the written word, videos, or by other available mediums. Anonymous stories are welcome. Please visit our Facebook prototype site at: https://www.facebook.com/groups/439109260104105. LHYS exhibits “social value” by focusing upon how we learn survival skills from each other. I am developing LHYS into an online showcase which focuses upon the Inner Strength contained within the Human Spirit. We will post a vast selection of exceptional work created by exceptional individuals. We welcome individuals who are interested in exhibiting their work on the LHYS site. Please feel free to contact me at [email protected]. Your input is greatly appreciated. Thank you! Tony Lombardo
A Gift from the Political God John Burl Smith Enduring the last six months of the COVID-19 pandemic, living through lockdowns, openings and locking downs again, with “social distancing,” carry out dining, as movies, gyms, sports arenas, clubs and strip joints closed, for many Republicans defying CDC guideline became a battle of wills, as well as a campaign tactic for Donald Trump. But just as I was about to go stir craze the political gods came up with the perfect diversion to put the party life and oh oh oh, back into the “ole US of A. Last Wednesday Republicans in the US House of Representatives tried to stop the measure that would establish a commission to investigate the Capitol insurrection back on 1/6. Kevin McCarty, leader of this sideshow, following the circus of ousting Liz Cheney in the dark, brought his slap stick charade into public view with a “noose-conference.” After trying to hang things up with Republican votes, in a few words, he lynched the commission idea as “unnecessary.” But then, like a bolt of lightning out of the clear blue sky, it seemed the political gods got into the act, and convinced Mitch McConnell that killing the commission would not only please and protect Donald Trump, but would keep the Democrats from gaining any advantage investigating Trump’s role and responsibility for the January 6 insurrection. Donning a Marcel Marceau out fit and while doing an “old soft shoe,” Mitch went one better than Kevin, threatening to deploy the “nuclear option” the dreaded “filibuster.” This is when I knew the political gods must have a sense of humor, at the thought of the cast of characters in the Senate pulling off such a rhetorical gambit, with the world hanging on their every word. Only the political gods could have tricked Moscow Mitch into threatening to rain down utter devastation on Democrats, while hiding the truth of Trump treason and their complicity in aiding his crime. These Lokis had to desire to interject some levity into their boring lives, by tricking the Republican leader McConnell into exposing his colleagues, as they wreak havoc on American’s sense of justice with an extended debate that will give Americans and the world a real party to lift the boredom. Think about it, what could be more hilarious than Republicans parading to the well, one after the other, simulating what only a few Americans witnessed in “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington.” The kinds of performance the American voters have witnessed for the last two week, as Republicans tried to recast the January 6th insurrection, will not allow them to avoid the hook on stage left or right. Having to stay center stage the entire time will top anything performance recognized during last Award season. The Republicans show in the Senate will be like watching reruns of the “Beverly Hill Bill.” Imagine Mitch McConnell, as “Mr. Drysdale,” explaining to “Miss Hathaway” played Joni Ernst, how to seduce “Jethro,” Chuck Schumer into going “skinny dipping in the cement pond, while chaperoned by “Granny,” Marsha Blackburn so he could make out with “Elly May” Susan Collins on the back porch. That madcap episode is followed by Sen. John Thune, who flips the script, bringing on the “Duke of Hazzard.” He stars as “Boss Hogg,” doubling with Ted Cruz, a man with a con for any occasion, is out to sell “Bo and Luke,” Mitt Romney and Ben Sasse the only bootleg copy of a sleazy p***o tape of “Daisy May” Liz Cheney, he swears “Sheriff Rosco” Roy Blunt filmed on a stake out, “Enos” Rick Scott is going to show all the boys on Friday, which “Cooter,” Tom Cotton is the promoter, if they don’t buy it. I’m not going to give away the cliffhanger and spoil the fun of watching high speed chases, explosive leaps, and the quick getaway in the General Lee, but with this crew you know Daisy May’s virtue was never in question. A line up where all comedians front as straight men, Republicans’ routine is something no comedy lover would ever miss, and as debaters they will put Dave Chappelle, Chris Rock, Whoopi Goldberg or D. L. Hughley to shame!!! With Republicans determined not to allow Democrats a chance to expose their complicity in the January 6th insurrection, they are prepared to argue until hell freezes over, before they allow Democrats to lay any responsibility for the January 6th mayhem and murder at their feet. So the American people will be treated to the rebirth of Abbott and Costello, Laurel and Hardy, the Five Marx brothers and gaggles of one liners from the likes of Sid Caesar, Jack Benny and Red Skelton, which will last until late into the fall. Democrats would not dare interrupt or stop all the free entertainment, jumping off TV news minute by minute. Democrats will not be able to call for a closure vote, because they will be rolling around on the floor of the Senate, cracking up at Republican antics, trying to convince voters they are seriously fighting to protect democracy. I would have included some outstanding black comedians like Dick Gregory, Redd Foxx, Richard Pryor, Moms Mabley, Mantan Moreland, Pigmeat Markham and Nipsey Russell, I could go on for days, but the Senate is a white boy’s bill, except for one “in black face” joker who always blows the punch line. I am stocking up on popcorn, peanuts, and beer, because the Senate filibuster is going to be more giggles than a barrel of monkeys. Never mind the seriousness of the situation, Republicans have worked tremendously hard trying to turn the insurrection on January 6th into a joke, so the American people may as well sit back and enjoy the greatest clown show to ever hit the Senate! More than anything, American voters will have an opportunity to see what they will get, if they re-elect this line up of insurrectionist Republicans gag men in 2022 and 20224. America’s government will never be any better than the people voters elect. The Republicans filibuster will show exactly the kind of government Republicans will give this nation!!!!!
Learned a lot about Hawaii reading this article in The Bowdoin Orient #hawaii #kingofhawaii
Hey how do we get the college behind this?
Congrats on Bowdoin making the cut for College Magazine’s Top 10 Most Peaceful Colleges. Your school goes above and beyond providing amazing resources to promote student-wide stress relief. Hope you enjoy the article, live on College Magazine this morning! Best, Francesca
Student panel on #disability calls for empathy, not sympathy. https://bowdoinorient.com/2019/12/06/student-panel-on-disability-calls-for-empathy-not-sympathy/ via The Bowdoin Orient
Why does your organization steadfastly refuse to report the contrary scientific findings regarding alleged human-induced climate change? On Aug. 9, 2019 -- Prof. Shaviv insisted that CO2 plays only a minor role in climate change. On Aug. 11, 2019, Prof. Wu reported that her investigative team could find no evidence of human influence on the Earth's climate. In Oct. 2019 -- Over 700 climate experts wrote to the UN stating that "NO CLIMATE EMERGENCY EXISTS" and asserting that the climate models are unfit for policy-making purposes. The Foolish Idea of "Settled" Science The Main Stream Media trumpets (almost endlessly) that the science regarding climate change is "settled" as evidenced by 97% of climatologists who have reached a "consensus" about anthropogenic (human-induced) global warming. What the press does not stress is that this like-mindedness among these experts is based almost entirely upon computer simulations (GCMs or climate models) and not on any significant experimental data or evidence. Even more distressing is that many (most?) climate advocates see the current scientific findings as fixed and they reject out of hand any actual contrary research results. Like it or not science is simply never settled. Any historian of science will quickly belie the unsound position regarding "settled" science. A few solid examples should suffice to dismiss this misbegotten belief. During the late 19th century the entire scientific community accepted as fact the necessary existence of a "luminiferous ether" through which photons from the Sun traveled to reach the Earth. Then in 1887 Michelson & Morley of Case Western Reserve conducted a single experiment that showed that no such "ether" existed. Thus, all the prior evidence and belief was discarded. [Note: Interestingly, it was M&M's research that set Einstein on his search concerning relativity.] The bottom line is that the 97% "consensus" concerning the "settled" science regarding the existence of a luminiferous ether was wrong. Next, at the turn of the 20th century, virtually every cosmologist and astronomer agreed that the stars and galaxies that made up our universe were fixed in position. Then in 1930, Edwin Hubble by studying the "redshift" of the light reaching Earth from these heavenly bodies showed that our universe was expanding and that it was doing so at an accelerating rate. Once again, all of the "settled" science was placed in the trash bin of history. Another excellent example is "continental drift". During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, virtually every scientific expert insisted that the position of the Earth's continents was fixed. This scientific conclusion was based upon the observation that although granite existed on the continents, the seafloor was composed of denser basalt, and the "settled" science during the first half of the twentieth century was that there were two types of crust, named"sial" (continental type crust) and "sima" (oceanic type crust). Furthermore, it was "accepted" by all researchers that a static shell was present under the continents. Then in 1947, a team of scientists using an array of instruments confirmed the existence of a rise in the central Atlantic Ocean and found that the floor of the seabed beneath the layer of sediments consisted of basalt, not the granite which is the main constituent of continents. They also found that the oceanic crust was much thinner than continental crust. All these new findings put the "settled" science into question. Subsequently, beginning in the 1950s, scientists using instruments that measure attraction (magnetometers) began recognizing odd "striping" across the ocean floor. After the maps with this "zebra pattern" of magnetic bands were published, the connection between seafloor spreading and this layout was correctly linked to the historic evidence of geomagnetic reversals. Like it or not, the seven continents had been moving. Again, the 97% "consensus" regarding the "settled" science of fixed continents had to be discarded. In science, the idea of a "settled consensus" is simply silly. Science is constantly uncovering new truths. The Concept of "Settled" Science Regarding Anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change has recently been falsified In 2014, a group of Chinese researchers found evidence suggesting that the current warm phase of a 500-year cycle could terminate over several decades, ushering in a 250-year cool phase. Then on July 3, 2019, Science Daily announced that new evidence suggests that high-energy particles from space known as galactic cosmic rays affect the Earth's climate by increasing cloud cover, causing an "umbrella effect." When galactic cosmic rays increased during the Earth's last geomagnetic reversal transition 780,000 years ago, the umbrella effect of low-cloud cover led to high atmospheric pressure in Siberia, causing the East Asian winter monsoon to become stronger. This is evidence that galactic cosmic rays influence changes in the Earth's climate. "The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has discussed the impact of cloud cover on climate in their evaluations, but this phenomenon has never been considered in climate predictions due to the insufficient physical understanding of it," stated lead Japanese investigator, Professor Hyodo. "This study provides an opportunity to rethink the impact of clouds on climate. When galactic cosmic rays increase, so do low clouds, and when cosmic rays decrease clouds do as well, so climate warming may be caused by an opposite-umbrella effect. The umbrella effect caused by galactic cosmic rays is important when thinking about current global warming as well as the warm period of the medieval era." On Aug. 9, 2019, Prof. Nir Shaviv suggested that rising levels of CO2 play only a minor role in Earth's climate compared to the influence of the Sun and cosmic radiation. "Climate change has existed forever and is unlikely to go away. But CO2 emissions don't play a major role. Periodic solar activity does." He continued by asserting that "... science is not a democracy. Even if 100% of scientists believe something, one person with good evidence can still be right." Subsequently, on Aug. 11, 2019, it was reported that a new study had found winters in northern China have been warming since 4,000 BC. The study found that winds from Arctic Siberia have been growing weaker, the conifer tree line has been retreating north, and there has been a steady rise in biodiversity in a general warming trend that continues today. It appears to have little to do with the increase in greenhouse gases which began with the industrial revolution, according to the researchers. Lead scientist Dr. Wu Jing, from the Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, part of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said the study had found no evidence of human influence on northern China’s warming winters. “Driving forces include the sun, the atmosphere, and its interaction with the ocean,” Wu said. “We have detected no evidence of human influence." Then the web site, Bioengineer.org, on Nov. 6, 2019, cited three papers from the Federal University of Sao Paolo, Brazil which partially affirm the studies from Japan and China. This research insists that "The composition (of marine) sediments carried by rivers from the mainland to the ocean can be used as a basis for calculating variables such as temperature, precipitation, and marine salinity. In the context of ongoing global climate change, the study of the past is fundamental to validating the accuracy of the climate models used to make predictions." SUMMARY The world-famous philosopher of science, Karl Popper, insisted that to be a valid scientific theory must be falsifiable. This includes the widely held conjecture of anthropogenic (human-caused) climate change. In short, a single set of scholarly findings that is not explained by the premise of man-made global warming which is attributable to the burning of fossil fuels can falsify this entire body of scientific speculation and this has now occurred. Today, six peer-reviewed scientific papers that were conducted by six separate groups of expert investigators from four different universities in three separate countries and which have all been published in eminent peer-reviewed scholarly journals have found no evidence to support the assertion regarding human-induced climate change. Instead, all six groups independently found that the warming that has happened was almost entirely attributable to galactic cosmic rays that affect the quantity of the Earth's low hanging clouds. These expert investigators call this canopy or blanket the "umbrella effect". The bottom line is that the entire climate change hysteria has now been falsified and is untrue. These six experimental results have shown that the IPCC and its computer simulation models (GCMs) are not valid. LINKS For those who require links here are several: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3022136/china-scientists-warn-global-cooling-trick-natures-sleeve https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JyyuouPSNEA agencia.fapesp.br/a-novel-method-for-analyzing-marine-sediments-contributes-to-paleoclimate-reconstitution/31850/ https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2019PA003691 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190703121407.htm https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205841/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4215299/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIDoMPIikog https://phys.org/news/2019-12-cooling-role-particulate-earth-stronger.html