Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal

Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal CUSJ publishes original research by undergraduates in its peer/faculty reviewed journal and hosts an annual symposium for outstanding undergraduate and high school students.
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The Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal is a peer-reviewed, professional-level, open-access academic publication that is committed to publishing manuscripts of the highest scholarship resulting from significant scientific research or outstanding scientific analysis. Each paper published in the CUSJ undergoes a double-blind peer review process facilitated by the Journal's Editorial Review Board

The Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal is a peer-reviewed, professional-level, open-access academic publication that is committed to publishing manuscripts of the highest scholarship resulting from significant scientific research or outstanding scientific analysis. Each paper published in the CUSJ undergoes a double-blind peer review process facilitated by the Journal's Editorial Review Board

Operating as usual

CUSJ is excited to host the annual Spring Research Symposium. If you're passionate about scientific research, this is a ...
01/21/2021

CUSJ is excited to host the annual Spring Research Symposium. If you're passionate about scientific research, this is a great opportunity to gain experience with presenting. All undergraduates are welcome, including those who do not attend Columbia. Fill out the form (bit.ly/columbiasymposium) to apply & email us at [email protected] with any questions.

CUSJ is excited to host the annual Spring Research Symposium. If you're passionate about scientific research, this is a great opportunity to gain experience with presenting. All undergraduates are welcome, including those who do not attend Columbia. Fill out the form (bit.ly/columbiasymposium) to apply & email us at [email protected] with any questions.

Last but definitely not least in our new editor intros is Teia Bratu! Teia is a freshman at CC studying Neuroscience, an...
11/02/2020

Last but definitely not least in our new editor intros is Teia Bratu! Teia is a freshman at CC studying Neuroscience, and she is originally from Fair Lawn, New Jersey. She joined CUSJ after being part of the CJSJ symposium as a junior in high school. After becoming friends with the awesome judges, Teia knew she wanted to be a part of the CUSJ community. More than that, she wants to help foster a scientific community among STEM students on campus. She is most interested in learning about Alzheimer’s Disease and the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, but almost anything in the field of biology sparks her interest. In her free time, Teia loves volleyball, photography, hiking, skiing, journalism, EMS, and finding places with good food. Fun fact! CUSJ played a huge role in Teia’s decision to apply ED to Columbia! Well, we’re so glad you love CUSJ as much as we do. Welcome to the team Teia!!

And that concludes our new editor intros! We’re so glad to have each and every one of you on our wonderful team. We can’t wait to see what’s in store for CUSJ next! :))

Next is Kazi Rabbe for our new editor intros! Kazi is a freshman at SEAS studying mechanical engineering. From Tulsa, OK...
11/02/2020

Next is Kazi Rabbe for our new editor intros! Kazi is a freshman at SEAS studying mechanical engineering. From Tulsa, OK, Kazi is super fascinated with space and more specifically, spaceflight! During his free time, he likes to play basketball with friends, watch sports and Netflix shows, and make whipped coffee. Fun fact! He had a pet bird named Larry Bird! Welcome to CUSJ!

We also have a resuming editing event coming up where we've partnered up with Beyond Barnard! Here's the info:STEM Resum...
11/02/2020
Handshake

We also have a resuming editing event coming up where we've partnered up with Beyond Barnard!

Here's the info:
STEM Resume Best Practices
November 12 (7PM Eastern)
Led by Beyond Barnard, in partnership with Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal

For STEM students (Barnard AND Columbia!!) heading into research jobs (across academia, industry, government, and nonprofits) after college, it's important to understand basic resume best practices — and to get some insights on the job market in the field more generally. Join us for a presentation on how to prepare your resume specific to STEM. Led by Beyond Barnard's Dean A-J Aronstein, this presentation will address:

- Resume best practices: positioning transferable skills, coursework, projects, and more as a STEM student
- What the job market and timeline looks for research roles at the entry level
- Questions that attendees bring to the table throughout the virtual conversation

The event is open to all students interested in STEM fields.
FB event: https://fb.me/e/3vDnlI5UD
Register at this link: https://barnard.joinhandshake.com/events/612290

Questions about attending? Please email Beyond Barnard at [email protected]. A recording of this session will be shared with all registrants. Attendance is, of course, encouraged!

Next up in our new editor intros we have Jennifer Lin! Jennifer is a freshman at CC pursuing sustainable development, an...
11/01/2020

Next up in our new editor intros we have Jennifer Lin! Jennifer is a freshman at CC pursuing sustainable development, and she is from Jericho, New York. She loves cell biology and finds if fascinating that trillions of tiny cells have such intricate functions in the day to day operations of organisms! She joined CUSJ in hopes of advocating for other students so that they can also pursue their passions in science. In her free time, Jennifer loves to read, online shop, and TikTok. Her proudest accomplishment is her complete collection of quarters from all 50 states. Welcome to CUSJ!

Up next in our new editor intros is Aaron Jackson! Aaron is a freshman at CC pursuing biochemistry. He is from Draper, U...
11/01/2020

Up next in our new editor intros is Aaron Jackson! Aaron is a freshman at CC pursuing biochemistry. He is from Draper, Utah, and he loves to run, swim, and explore the city (socially distanced, of course!). After spending 2 years in Spain before coming to college, Aaron decided to join CUSJ to find a supportive and friendly community within the science community at Columbia! Welcome to the fam, Aaron!

We’ve got Ana Beatriz Bonfim up next in our new editor intros! Ana is a junior at Barnard studying biochemistry. Growing...
10/31/2020

We’ve got Ana Beatriz Bonfim up next in our new editor intros! Ana is a junior at Barnard studying biochemistry. Growing up in Brasília, Brazil, she is interested in exploring the intersection of bioinorganic chemistry and materials science research for human health-related applications. During her free time, she annoys her two cats, watches the NBA with her sister, listens to Brazilian music, and obsesses over TV shows. Fun fact! She is a part of an all-female Afro-Brazilian drumming band and has performed all over NYC and even in Carnival in Brazil! Welcome to CUSJ!

Next in our new editor intros is Gloria Charite! Gloria is a sophomore at CC studying neuroscience and human behavior. G...
10/31/2020

Next in our new editor intros is Gloria Charite! Gloria is a sophomore at CC studying neuroscience and human behavior. Growing up in Kigali City, Rwanda, she loves science, especially brain science. Before joining CUSJ, she has been a spectator of new science technologies and fascinating advancements. Now at this perfect playground for a community of fellow science committed players, she looks forward to being actively involved in the exciting process of producing science materials and making scientific information available to everyone. During her free time, she reads books, listens to music, and talks to friends and family. Fun fact! She has 4 or more nicknames :D. Welcome to CUSJ!

We’ve got Vanshika Sriram up next in our new editor intros! Vanshika is a freshman in SEAS from South Brunswick, New Jer...
10/30/2020

We’ve got Vanshika Sriram up next in our new editor intros! Vanshika is a freshman in SEAS from South Brunswick, New Jersey! She is studying biomedical engineering. She is interested in learning about nanomedicine, biotechnology, and astrophysics. In her spare time she enjoys drawing, sewing, watching tv, and drinking bubble tea. Fun Fact! She used to know the capital of every country. Welcome to CUSJ!

Up next in our new editor intros is Laurelle Lee Young! Laurelle is a junior in Columbia college studying biochemistry w...
10/30/2020

Up next in our new editor intros is Laurelle Lee Young! Laurelle is a junior in Columbia college studying biochemistry with a concentration in computer science. She's really excited to be a part of CUSJ as a community with a diverse range of STEM specialties! Her current area of interest is genetic regulation, specifically how mechanisms of RNA regulation and ncRNA degradation may shed light on other areas in genetics and raise questions about links to related diseases. This quarantine, Laurelle has kept busy in her hometown the Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago by cutting her hair, doing yoga, going on runs with a mask and sketching random objects around the house. Her favourite Soca song is Savannah Grass, by Kes the Band. Welcome to CUSJ!

Next in our new editor intros is Zoe Zager! Zoe is a junior pursuing a double major in physics and math at Columbia Coll...
10/29/2020

Next in our new editor intros is Zoe Zager! Zoe is a junior pursuing a double major in physics and math at Columbia College. She joined CUSJ in order to focus on her writing and editing skills while having the opportunity to meet other people studying science at Columbia. Although her primary interests are in more theoretical and abstract fields, she is also interested in learning more about biology and computer science through her involvement with CUSJ! Some of Zoe's favorite quarantine past-times, both in her hometown of Detroit Michigan and on-campus, include running, reading, trying out new coffee shops, and playing the saxophone and piano. For Zoe, the hardest part of being home for the summer was missing the one true love of her life: JJs smoothies! Welcome to CUSJ Zoe!

Up next in our new editor intros is Natasha Sharma! Natasha is a sophomore at Barnard from Newton, Massachusetts interes...
10/29/2020

Up next in our new editor intros is Natasha Sharma! Natasha is a sophomore at Barnard from Newton, Massachusetts interested in studying chemistry and biochemistry. Her driving motivation is to make science and scientific literature more accessible to those in other fields! Science fascinates her because of its ability to provide people with another lens through which we can see and understand the world around us. She is particularly interested in healthcare and public health, specifically the intersection between social and hard sciences such as sociology and biology. Natasha enjoys running, biking, playing water polo, cooking, and spending time with her friends and family. Fun fact about Natasha: her house was on a home improvement show! Welcome to CUSJ Natasha!

CUSJ 2018-2019!
10/28/2020

CUSJ 2018-2019!

Next in our new editor intros is Shloka Janapaty! Shloka is a freshman in SEAS from San Jose who plans to study chemical...
10/28/2020

Next in our new editor intros is Shloka Janapaty! Shloka is a freshman in SEAS from San Jose who plans to study chemical or mechanical engineering. Shloka’s research has given her a broad interest in reconfiguring systems and resources for a sustainable future. She’s primarily focused on contaminant transport, energy efficiency, and cool microbes; her most recent project reevaluates heat transfer processes in rotary kilns. Shloka likes to think of science as the analytical witness of inextricable connections in the natural world. Her favorite element of research is creativity. In her free time, she enjoys hiking and reading. Fun Fact: Shloka can only snap with her left pinky finger. Welcome to CUSJ!

Next in our new editor intros is Anushka Gupta! Anushka is a freshman in SEAS from San Diego studying computer science. ...
10/28/2020

Next in our new editor intros is Anushka Gupta! Anushka is a freshman in SEAS from San Diego studying computer science. Anushka is interested in science and research, especially at the intersection of data science and physics. She says she has seen shows with inspirational montages of research breakthroughs and has always wanted to be a part of that montage! In her free time, Anushka loves hiking, dancing, and cooking. Fun Fact! She has collected travel pamphlets from all of the places she has visited, and plans to make a collage of them in the future! Welcome to CUSJ!

Up next in our new editor intros is Samantha Turk! Samantha is a first year at Barnard studying Biochemistry. She is int...
10/27/2020

Up next in our new editor intros is Samantha Turk! Samantha is a first year at Barnard studying Biochemistry. She is interested in learning about epigenetics, particularly with regard to its role in diseases like cancer and its applications to drug development. In her free time, she enjoys dancing, playing cards, listening to music, and going to museums. Fun fact: Samantha has two dogs named Hershey and Coco! Welcome to CUSJ Samantha!

Next up in our new editor intros is Stan DeLaurentiis! Stan is a sophomore in CC studying Astrophysics with a concentrat...
10/27/2020

Next up in our new editor intros is Stan DeLaurentiis! Stan is a sophomore in CC studying Astrophysics with a concentration in EALAC. He is interested in (and researching!) the relationship between the stellar age, rotation period, and magnetic activity of low mass stars. In his free time, Stan is working on starting a streetwear fashion brand (he does it all!). Fun fact: Stan was in a Chinese game show! Welcome to the team Stan!

Next up in our new editor introductions we have Nadiia Dubchak! Nadiia is a sophomore in CC prospectively studying Envir...
10/26/2020

Next up in our new editor introductions we have Nadiia Dubchak! Nadiia is a sophomore in CC prospectively studying Environmental Science. Nadiia is from Kyiv, Ukraine, where she became passionate about environmental sustainability. She is a Research Assistant at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, where she is researching climate variability and the carbon cycle, and she enjoys exploring renewable energies and socio-economic impacts of climate changes. At CUSJ, Nadiia hopes to further grow as a scientist, help highlight research in Environmental Science, and also advocate for scientific literacy among youth. In her free time, Nadiia likes to try out new plant-based foods with friends, run to dramatic synth wave pop, and watch Soviet cinema. Fun fact! Since childhood, Nadiia has really loved getting vaccinations, and she recently had laser eye surgery, which she finds extremely exciting! What can we say… she really loves science! Welcome to CUSJ, Nadiia!

To kick off our new editor introductions, we have Mehdi Elfiali! Mehdi is a sophomore in CC studying Biology or Chemistr...
10/26/2020

To kick off our new editor introductions, we have Mehdi Elfiali! Mehdi is a sophomore in CC studying Biology or Chemistry. Hailing from Montclair, NJ, Mehdi joined CUSJ to challenge himself to build new skills in editing and scientific writing that will last a lifetime. He is interested in chemistry, computer science, and machine learning, and wishes he had more time to learn about these fascinating topics. In his free time, Mehdi plays a lot of Warzone and soccer and hopes to be a part of the Columbia Soccer team. Fun fact: both of Mehdi’s parents were born and raised in Morocco! Mehdi is super excited to get to know everyone, and we’re super excited to get to know you! Welcome to the CUSJ team, Mehdi!

We're partnering with the Biological Sciences Career Initiative (BSCI) for an event!The Biological Sciences Career Initi...
09/15/2020
Your path to grad school

We're partnering with the Biological Sciences Career Initiative (BSCI) for an event!

The Biological Sciences Career Initiative (BSCI) is hosting an informal virtual career panel on Thursday, September 24th at 6pm. The topic of the event will be "Your Path to Graduate School." Panelists from the MA in Biotechnology, PhD in Biological Sciences, and MD/PhD programs, along with a postdoctoral fellow, will participate in a Q&A to discuss their experiences applying to graduate school and in their programs.

Registration for the event is at the following link: www.eventbrite.com/e/your-path-to-grad-school-tickets-120465388219
FB event: https://www.facebook.com/events/308041427095728
Zoom link: https://columbiauniversity.zoom.us/j/92700500574

A panel of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows answer your questions about undergraduate research, applying to grad school, & more

Posting for our friends over at WISC!Come join Women in Science at Columbia (WISC) for our "STEM Grad School Funding Q&A...
09/01/2020
STEM Graduate School Funding Q&A!

Posting for our friends over at WISC!

Come join Women in Science at Columbia (WISC) for our "STEM Grad School Funding Q&A!" On Thursday, September 17th from 5pm-6pm, we will be chatting with a group of current graduate students about how programs are funded in the US and abroad...and how you can be paid to get your degree! RSVP via Eventbrite to receive the Zoom link: https://tinyurl.com/y54odww2 We welcome all gender identities to participate in our events!

A Q&A on graduate school funding featuring a panel of current Columbia graduate students in STEM!

At our second webinar event for CUSJ’s Summer Publishing Program, CUSJ invited panelists from Medscape, NYU School of Jo...
07/19/2020

At our second webinar event for CUSJ’s Summer Publishing Program, CUSJ invited panelists from Medscape, NYU School of Journalism, Scientific American, and NOVA to give advice to our future scientific journalists on scientific communication. We enjoyed hearing speakers talk about their career paths, varying experiences from sociology and medicine and how they transitioned into scientific journalists at top institutions, and how the reader and client are key components to consider when writing and that fact-checking is critical in scientific documentation. Thank you to our panelists for joining us!

Timeline Photos
06/05/2020

Timeline Photos

Last but not least in our 2020-2021 E-Board spotlights is our Director of Internal Affairs, Kate Johnson! Kate is a risi...
06/01/2020

Last but not least in our 2020-2021 E-Board spotlights is our Director of Internal Affairs, Kate Johnson! Kate is a rising junior in CC, hailing from Saint Helena, CA, and she is majoring in Neuroscience & Behavior. She loves the intersection between science and writing. Medical databases and journals have interested her for years, and joining CUSJ was the perfect opportunity to learn more about the editorial process. One area of science she is particularly interested in is the gut-brain axis. Working in a gastroenterology lab while studying neuroscience has allowed her to explore this from many angles. Outside of CUSJ, Kate plays on the Columbia Women’s Club Soccer team, tutors through the One-to-One program, and conducts research in a pediatric gastroenterology lab. She also enjoys beekeeping, exploring New York City, and eating cupcakes (we agree that those are many of the great things in life). Fun fact! Kate’s nickname growing up was “Five.” We’re beyond excited to have Kate as our Director of Internal Affairs! Kate and the rest of CUSJ would also like to wish everyone well and to please stay safe and healthy!

We’ve got yet another 2020-2021 E-Board spotlight! Meet Elin Hu, our Director of Communications! Originally from Long Is...
06/01/2020

We’ve got yet another 2020-2021 E-Board spotlight! Meet Elin Hu, our Director of Communications! Originally from Long Island, NY, Elin is a rising junior in CC majoring in Neuroscience on the pre-med track. Elin is so grateful to have had the amazing opportunity to be exposed to research in science at a young age, and she is extremely excited about new innovations in science and being able to share them with a greater community. She is particularly interested in the universal importance of sleep in organisms and the role of neural systems in aging. When she’s not with CUSJ, you can most likely find Elin at Joe Coffee fueling her iced oat chai addiction, dancing with Orchesis and recruiting people to join the most amazing dance group on campus (Orchesis, if that wasn’t clear), playing clarinet in the Columbia University Orchestra, giving tours with the Undergraduate Recruitment Committee, and conducting research on flies at the Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute. In her free time, Elin enjoys being outdoors, spending time with friends, and experimenting with new baked goods (ask her about her sourdough, we dare you). Fun fact! Elin can crack almost all of the joints in her body and scares many people when doing so.

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CALCULATIONS AND UNIVERSAL BALANCED FUNCTION Arithmetical calculation is the origin and deals with numbers like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication and algebra with numbers and variables. Arithmetic is the basic branch (number theory) and algebra is the reunion of broken parts. a) 7+2=9 and 2+7=9 arithmetic b) 2t+2f=2f+2t algebra. c) If values of ‘t and f’ differ, the equation cannot stand which is not the case with definite figures in arithmetic. Algebra searches unknown. If something is needed in market, so it is ‘x’ and if it is a pen,’x’ is a pen. Look at the sky; can we account correctly how many stars are? The answer is ‘no’ and so it is taken as ‘x’, then known (assumed) are 1, 00,000; the equation will be x-1, 00,000=’y’. Here both ‘x and y’ are unknown. When ‘y’ is determined, then riddle is solved, as ‘x’ value is discovered. For all probable variables, algebra is the route. When search is completed, equations stand tall. But again equations are not as tall for assessing secrets of the nature with infinite form and a fraction may be perhaps known, that too depending upon variances, termed as universe. So unknown can be bracketed in algebra as ‘x, y, and z’ as quantifying numbers are hidden and not figured out. To know the natural function of the universe, a combined capsule of arithmetic and algebra is applied. Is there any other mode for accounting without this help? Whether arithmetic or algebra, it is based on earth conditions and relevant response alone. To locate universal secrets, the relativity has to stand between the earth and the universal objects as a whole. Considering harmony, there may be some common universal laws for all objects which can be reached by terming as unknown in algebra. In fact a single path of original branch of arithmetic would help better; as for unknown factors zero ‘0’ can be used; at the most 01, 02, 03 instead of ‘a, b, c or x’ for equations in algebra, making mathematics simpler. Universal operations are without linking past, present, future and based on the simplest but permanent auto calculations on friction and tapping with relevant fluctuations of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. This study can be framed in advanced arithmetic. When the universe came into being, undoubtedly it is with series of continued bangs that too with sustained time gaps in expanding travel. Is there any energy Centre to spread the empire? If it is invisible; then only two divisions surface; visible and invisible covering living and nonliving. Both carries soul energy, the former is self-activated and latter is not as here soul energy is limited to its static position unless activated externally. The universe is a capsule of mass and energy. Living activates mass for specific results; but mass is also activated by the nature to provide air, water, light etc. This is out of self-generated tapping transformation. Force, friction with mass resulting in velocity are the prime factors to promote bangs, one after other; as a single bang cannot frame out the sprawling universe. The energy output is as per the beats of mass contact with velocity which gets on to a recycle scenario for the final result. However the system is on the footing of tapping and twisting of mass by velocity on auto rhythm. It would be interesting to know the beginning of beginning to meet the recycle process. All this is not followed by the nature as per mathematics but by 2 harmonious relativity and behaviour. The universal energy follows ground rules of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. Friction of mass and velocity are the building blocks of energy which is invisible. The velocity is with variances as per activation of mass and it is a combined capsule of time and space. Even gravitation and anti-gravitation impact factors of objects including the earth explain development of seasons. Gravitation and anti-gravitation range differs from object to object surfaces resulting in differences in seasonal climate. The nature with infinite setup has tapping transformation behaviour without any balance sheets and profit and loss account. The universal function only knows to give expecting nothing. Here lies the responsibility for keeping the environment clean for the simple reason that then only the nature can offer healthy and happy life. Dr.Einstein stated- it is an uncritical attitude to declare statistical character of the nature to be a fact but up to now we do not have any other theory. The nature stood for an orderly system obeying rules which could be discovered with courage and imagination. He even with his famous energy mass formula agreed that there must be something behind energy and was in search of systems which might open up secrets of the nature without any probabilities. In this context, it is rather surprising to note squares of 1 and 2 which are 1 and 4 respectively against the norm that square of same figure is more than the addition which states 1+1=2 and 2+2=4. So the values of a2 and b2, standing at 1 and 2 would present a different scenario in practical energy application routes. Force delivers velocity by friction with mass with variances as per gravitation and anti-gravitation on surface conditions. Time and space is a part of velocity and not in isolation. Hence study of velocity in reference to mass, gravitation and anti-gravitation is of utmost importance. For this no accounting system fits in to understand the infra-structure of the universe as a whole since it functions on auto principles without uncertainties. Here beats of bits of atomic sub particles in space may render some support in our understanding. The knowledge to know the universe with its infinite source empire is by its sound language which lifts tapping transformation. This will bring in such routes for the use of minimum resources and expenses to achieve the best maximum outputs. For example, one of the immeasurable objects, the sun alone is capable to provide light for the limitless areas. H V Navangul Age 82