Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal

Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal CUSJ publishes original research by undergraduates in its peer/faculty reviewed journal and hosts an annual symposium for outstanding undergraduate and high school students.
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The Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal is a peer-reviewed, professional-level, open-access academic publication that is committed to publishing manuscripts of the highest scholarship resulting from significant scientific research or outstanding scientific analysis. Each paper published in the CUSJ undergoes a double-blind peer review process facilitated by the Journal's Editorial Review Board and a faculty review by a member of the Faculty Advisory Board. Publication in the CUSJ is highly competitive. CUSJ also hosts an annual spring Undergraduate Research Symposium. Students from any college are invited to submit abstracts for consideration to present a poster and/or give an oral presentation at the Symposium. Through the Symposium, the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal aims to establish a forum for the display of outstanding undergraduate research to be viewed by faculty and students of pre-eminent Northeastern region research institutions. Attendees will also have the opportunity to hear about current research from distinguished Columbia faculty members. The CUSJ has two primary goals. First, the CUSJ aims to publish works of the highest scholarship authored primarily by undergraduates. Second, the CUSJ aims to educate students about the academic publication process, both from the inside as a member of the CUSJ staff and from the outside as a submitter to a scientific journal with academic standards that are as rigorous as any professional-level scientific publication. Please note that the deadline for submissions to our 2013-2014 issue has past, but please stay tuned for more information about submitting to our 2014-2015 issue this fall!

Ask successful seniors about how they attained their research positions, and how their research lead them to their gradu...
04/22/2020

Ask successful seniors about how they attained their research positions, and how their research lead them to their graduate school acceptances, jobs, and internships!

Join us on Zoom this Wednesday (tonight) at 8PM EST to chat with some CUSJ legends!!!

https://www.facebook.com/events/348840552743682

Christina Monnen CC'20 | Environmental Biology and Psychology | Former Managing Editor of CUSJ!

Maya Talukdar CC'20 | Computer Science | Former Social Chair!

Micah Gay CC'20 | Mathematics | Former President!

EyeAid Detroit is an organization founded in response to the COIVD-19 health crisis in Detroit, Michigan.COVID-19 has ma...
04/13/2020

EyeAid Detroit is an organization founded in response to the COIVD-19 health crisis in Detroit, Michigan.

COVID-19 has magnified Detroit’s existing structural inequalities and has led to dangerous conditions for Detroit patients and healthcare workers alike. Detroit is the poorest large city in the country, and its lack of resources combined with COVID-19 has led to arguably the worst urban healthcare crisis in the nation.

At the epicenter of this crisis is a shortage of protective equipment for our healthcare workers. Eye equipment in particular has been difficult to acquire -- this results in a greater risk of viral exposure for those most directly in contact with it.

EyeAid collects used (or new!) laboratory goggles from college students around the country and prepares them so that they are ready for hospital use. After we prep your goggles, we donate them to our network of Detroit-area hospitals.

Visit our website at https://eyeaiddetroit.wixsite.com/eyeaiddetroit to find out more and donate your laboratory goggles today. There's no time to wait; Detroit healthcare workers are desperate.

Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal
04/11/2020

Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal

For our final spotlight, we have Kanav Kalucha!!! Kanav is a first-year in SEAS from Fremont, California. Kanav plans on...
10/31/2019

For our final spotlight, we have Kanav Kalucha!!! Kanav is a first-year in SEAS from Fremont, California. Kanav plans on majoring in Computer Science. He’s particularly interested in computational linguistics and natural language processing. Outside of class, Kanav enjoys badminton, coding, Broadway shows, museums, and reading. FUN FACT: Kanav has been skydiving! Welcome to the CUSJ fam, Kanav! We’re so glad to have you!!!

Next we have Unal Yigit Ozulku, all the way from Istanbul, Turkey! Yigit is a first-year student in SEAS planning to stu...
10/30/2019

Next we have Unal Yigit Ozulku, all the way from Istanbul, Turkey! Yigit is a first-year student in SEAS planning to study Mechanical Engineering or Earth and Environmental Engineering. Yigit is interested in sustainability and public policy, with a particular focus on infrastructure design. In his free time, Yigit enjoys reading, playing the guitar, and debating. FUN FACT: Yigit runs a meme page on Facebook!!

Meet new member Mayeesa Rahman! Mayeesa is a first-year in Barnard from Long Island, NY. Mayessa plans to major in bioch...
10/28/2019

Meet new member Mayeesa Rahman! Mayeesa is a first-year in Barnard from Long Island, NY. Mayessa plans to major in biochemistry, and is especially fascinated by stem cell research. In her free time, Mayeesa enjoys listening to music, reading, and baking. FUN FACT: Mayeesa is 5 minutes younger than her identical twin sister. We’re so excited to have you on the team, Mayeesa!

Meet new member Aswath Suryanarayanan!!! Aswath is a first-year in CC hailing from Chennai, India. He plans on studying ...
10/27/2019

Meet new member Aswath Suryanarayanan!!! Aswath is a first-year in CC hailing from Chennai, India. He plans on studying Physics and is especially interested in Astrophysics (High Energy, Astroparticles) and Orbital Dynamics of Asteroids, Exoplanets and Satellites. In his free time, Aswath enjoys stargazing and playing badminton. FUN FACTS: Aswath has been paragliding and has met the Prime Minister and two Presidents of India. Welcome to CUSJ, Aswath!!!

From Princeton, NJ, we have Lydia Wu!!! Lydia is a first-year in CC who plans to study biochemistry. Lydia is interested...
10/26/2019

From Princeton, NJ, we have Lydia Wu!!! Lydia is a first-year in CC who plans to study biochemistry. Lydia is interested in immunotherapy. Outside of school, Lydia loves dancing, yoga, and museums. FUN FACT: Lydia loves Ferris pizza (Yum!). So excited to have you join the team, Lydia!!!

For our next spotlight, we have Shivali Verma. Shivali is a sophomore in CC from Bangalore, India. She plans on majoring...
10/25/2019

For our next spotlight, we have Shivali Verma. Shivali is a sophomore in CC from Bangalore, India. She plans on majoring in Biology or Biochemistry. Shivali is interested in genetics and developmental biology, specifically from a clinical angle to tackle medical hurdles like transplant rejection, tissue engineering, cancer, and genetic diseases like SCA and Thalassemia. In her free time, she enjoys sketching and painting, watching Parks and Rec, playing squash, jamming to ACDC and finding new music artists. FUN FACT: Shivali has worked in over 10 different art media!

In today’s new member spotlight, meet Shamara Yearwood! Shamara is a sophomore in CC majoring in biochemistry. She is fr...
10/24/2019

In today’s new member spotlight, meet Shamara Yearwood! Shamara is a sophomore in CC majoring in biochemistry. She is from Washington, D.C. but grew up in Antigua! As for her interests in the sciences, she is particularly intrigued by genetics and biodiversity. In her free time, she enjoys writing and photography. FUN FACT: Even though she lives on an island with a total of 365 beaches, she cannot swim.

In today’s spotlight, meet Arjun Kudinoor!! From Colorado Springs, Colorado, Arjun is a first-year in CC prospectively m...
10/23/2019

In today’s spotlight, meet Arjun Kudinoor!! From Colorado Springs, Colorado, Arjun is a first-year in CC prospectively majoring in physics and mathematics. His scientific interests include theoretical physics. In his free time, Arjun enjoys watching movies and tutoring/teaching. FUN FACT: Arjun has built a cyclotron particle accelerator! Welcome to CUSJ, Arjun!!

For this spotlight, we’re featuring new member Caroline Haoud! Hailing from Astoria, Queens, Caroline is a junior in CC ...
10/22/2019

For this spotlight, we’re featuring new member Caroline Haoud! Hailing from Astoria, Queens, Caroline is a junior in CC studying biochemistry. Caroline is particularly fascinated by neural circuits, epigenetics and evolution. Outside of school, Caroline enjoys rowing, hiking, and Muay Thai. FUN FACT: Caroline is a black belt in Tae Kwon Do! Welcome to the team, Caroline!

Say hi to our next new member, Michael Wang!!! Michael is a Columbia College first-year from Syosset, NY planning to stu...
10/21/2019

Say hi to our next new member, Michael Wang!!! Michael is a Columbia College first-year from Syosset, NY planning to study biology or economics. Michael is fascinated by neuroscience and genetics, and also enjoys sports, working out, music, and reading. FUN FACT: Michael abuses the Starbucks and Chipotle rewards apps. Welcome to CUSJ, Michael!

Our next spotlight features Hibah Vora, a first year in Barnard from Upstate New York!! Even though she is not sure what...
10/21/2019

Our next spotlight features Hibah Vora, a first year in Barnard from Upstate New York!! Even though she is not sure what major she will pursue, she is interested in genetics, specifically genetic influences on breast cancer migration. In her spare time she does a multitude of activities, including sailing, writing, mentoring, tutoring, drawing, and using the Oxford Comma. FUN FACT: Hibah was born left-handed and is now right-handed. She has been in the newspaper, and was featured in a local publication as a child.

Next up is Ellen Ren!!! Ellen is a first-year in Barnard from Queens, NY. She plans on majoring in Environmental Science...
10/16/2019

Next up is Ellen Ren!!! Ellen is a first-year in Barnard from Queens, NY. She plans on majoring in Environmental Science and/or Sustainability. Ellen is really interested in how we can make urban environments like NYC as sustainable as possible, and how we can confront issues that are more prevalent in urban areas, such as sewage drainage and its relationship to flooding, buildings getting the way of migration and movement of organisms like birds and pollinators, etc. In her free time, Ellen plays Pokemon Go and table tennis. Se loves finding aesthetic cafes in the city and fooling around with Garageband from time to time. FUN FACT: Ellen has perfect pitch! We’re so glad to have you, Ellen!!!

A Long Island native, new member Sahith Vadada is a CC first-year studying Neuroscience. Sahith enjoys learning about st...
10/15/2019

A Long Island native, new member Sahith Vadada is a CC first-year studying Neuroscience. Sahith enjoys learning about stem cell research and particularly its applications to tissue regeneration. Outside of his academic pursuits, Sahith can be found playing basketball, tennis, or the viola. FUN FACT: Sahith is a black belt in karate. So excited to have you join the team, Sahith!!!

For today’s spotlight, meet Chloe Gong! Chloe is a first-year CC student from Wallingford, Pennsylvania (a suburb near P...
10/14/2019

For today’s spotlight, meet Chloe Gong! Chloe is a first-year CC student from Wallingford, Pennsylvania (a suburb near Philly). Here at Columbia, she plans to study Biology on a pre-med track, with a particular focus on immunology and its connection to cancer immunotherapy and autoimmunity. Chloe is also interested in public/global health, and is excited to pursue these interests at Columbia! In her free time, Chloe enjoys singing, drawing, going on runs in parks, and exploring the city. FUN FACT: Chloe never gets jet lag :)

First up on our new member spotlight is Avi Gupta. Avi is a first-year in SEAS hailing from Portland, Oregon. He plans o...
10/14/2019

First up on our new member spotlight is Avi Gupta. Avi is a first-year in SEAS hailing from Portland, Oregon. He plans on studying computer science or IEOR. Avi is fascinated by artificial intelligence and its application to real-world medical, business, and societal problems. Outside of academics, Avi enjoys playing basketball, going down Wikipedia rabbit holes, and FaceTiming his dog. FUN FACT: Avi appeared on the 2019 Jeopardy Teen Tournament! Welcome to the fam, Avi!!

Join the CUSJ Mentorship Program Today!!!CUSJ is committed to creating a more supportive Columbia science community. We ...
09/19/2019

Join the CUSJ Mentorship Program Today!!!

CUSJ is committed to creating a more supportive Columbia science community. We are very excited for our mentorship program this year! Mentors will be paired with underclassmen, and they will provide guidance in navigating the sciences at Columbia. CUSJ will also sponsor social events through out the semester for everyone in the program.

Sign up here: http://bit.ly/2lY8WdU

Interested in science research? Join the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal's Board! The CUSJ is a professional-leve...
09/16/2019

Interested in science research? Join the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal's Board!

The CUSJ is a professional-level, open-access science journal that is committed to publishing manuscripts of the highest scholarship resulting from significant scientific research or outstanding scientific analysis. Each paper published in the CUSJ undergoes a double-blind peer review process facilitated by the Journal's Editorial Review Board and a faculty review by the CUSJ Faculty Advisory Board.

Applications have been EXTENDED to be due at Wednesday, September 18th, at midnight. Apply now: http://bit.ly/CUSJAPPLICATION

Below are short descriptions of each committee you could join:

CUSJ: Get the chance to work on the journal's flagship project! This committee gives you the chance to put together our peer-reviewed journal and collaborate with our Faculty Advisory Board to edit submissions. CUSJ is also updating our guidelines and ethics so this is a great opportunity to learn more about science journalism.

CJSJ: Interested in working with high school students and helping the next generation of scientists? This committee focuses on the publication of our junior science journal that attracts hundreds of submissions from an international scope. CJSJ is also launching a flagship ambassadorship program to connect published authors and spread awareness about our publications.

Events: Want to chat with award-winning professors about their research? Care to hear from professionals in different industry? This committee will provide you with the platform to create programming and provide a service to the student-scientist community. Events is our historically most active committee with upwards of two events per month ensuring CUSJ stays relevant on campus.

Finance: It makes the world go round. Finances are a crucial part of operating our organization, especially given our two publications per year. This committee will work to brainstorm fundraising campaigns, print our publications, and apply for additional grant. Finance is vital to ensure that our other committees can function and you get the chance to improve the future of our organization.

Communications: Work on dynamic creative media projects and share CUSJ's fantastic work with the rest of Columbia! This committee is in charge of publicity, internal communication, and works intimately with other committees to ensure their projects are successful. Join Communications if you are social media savvy or want to simply improve our public image.

Internal Affairs: Want a CUSJ dinner and kickback? How about touring a local science festival? This committee is the social glue of our organization and sets the tone for our community here. Internal Affairs is in charge of hosting social board-wide events through out the year and making sure our community feels welcomed.

Outreach: Help spread CUSJ's mission beyond Columbia! From our alumni affairs to high school outreach, this committee works to expand our network of affiliates. Importantly, Outreach organizes our mentorship program which matches underclassmen with relevant upperclassmen mentors.

Join CUSJ Today! Applications close on Sunday, September 15thLink here: bit.ly/CUSJAPPLICATION
09/13/2019

Join CUSJ Today! Applications close on Sunday, September 15th

Link here: bit.ly/CUSJAPPLICATION

Join the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal for our interest meeting TONIGHT in Schapiro Lounge at 8PM!There are sev...
09/08/2019

Join the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal for our interest meeting TONIGHT in Schapiro Lounge at 8PM!

There are seven committees that you can join: CUSJ, CJSJ, Communication, Events, Finance, Internal Affairs, Outreach. Each has specific goals and projects that helps the journal operate.

Stay tuned for our application! Check out our websites (CUSJ [https://cusj.columbia.edu/] and CJSJ [http://cjsjournal.org/] ) to explore the journals we have published in the past. We are looking forward to meeting with you and sharing our passion for science journalism.

CUSJ 2018-2019!
07/16/2019

CUSJ 2018-2019!

Meet Brendon Choy, one of our editors from Queens, NY!What are your research interests?"Just like an engineer needs to l...
04/22/2019

Meet Brendon Choy, one of our editors from Queens, NY!

What are your research interests?
"Just like an engineer needs to look at the parts of a machine to learn how it works, a structural biologist tries to find the structure of proteins to figure out how they function in processes ranging from DNA replication and repair to viral interactions. I’m interested in structural biology because it provides the basic pictures and puzzle pieces to learn about unknown biological mechanisms and ultimately create solutions to associated problems through, for example, optimizing the drug design process. Also, the finished results - colorful 3D renditions of protein structures - are works of art in and of themselves."

Join us tonight for The In Silico Revolution: Computational Biology Panel! It’ll start at 7pm in Math 203— hope to see y...
04/18/2019

Join us tonight for The In Silico Revolution: Computational Biology Panel! It’ll start at 7pm in Math 203— hope to see you there!

Meet Deena Shefter, one of our editors from Ridgewood, NJ! What are your research interests?"Cellular & molecular biolog...
04/08/2019

Meet Deena Shefter, one of our editors from Ridgewood, NJ!

What are your research interests?
"Cellular & molecular biology, neuroscience, computer science, and especially the combination of these disciplines. I have completed a computational biology project regarding the crosstalk between multiple sclerosis and osteoporosis and am now working in a lab which optimizes immunolabeling techniques in the brains of mice with Alzheimers."

Meet Noah Krever, one of our editors from Columbus, New Jersey!What are your research interests?"Nothing excites me more...
03/27/2019

Meet Noah Krever, one of our editors from Columbus, New Jersey!

What are your research interests?
"Nothing excites me more than research being done on the frontiers of modern physics. Personally, my favorite topics are astrophysics and cosmology dealing with black holes, time dilation, stellar physics, gravitational waves and lensing, dark matter and dark energy, along with quantum physics like superstring theory, particle physics, supersymmetry, and quantum entanglement. I believe that we are on the cusp of so many revolutionary breakthroughs in physics that could propel humanity into an exciting future. It is truly a wonderful time to be a physicist- the only problem is figuring out what to tackle first!"

Meet Anastasia, the Managing Editor of CJSJ! What are your research interests?"I'm really excited about the patterns tha...
03/11/2019

Meet Anastasia, the Managing Editor of CJSJ!

What are your research interests?
"I'm really excited about the patterns that we can find in brain imaging data. My current research project at the Center for Theoretical Neuroscience lies at the intersection of statistical methodology and computational neuroscience. As new techniques such as calcium imaging have produced datasets of unprecedented size and precision, researchers are creating new techniques, such as signal processing and dimensionality reduction, to understand fundamental neuroscience problems. One component of my work involves fitting maximum entropy distributions to model the population structure of neural data and testing its properties."

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The Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal is a peer-reviewed, professional-level, open-access academic publication that is committed to publishing manuscripts of the highest scholarship resulting from significant scientific research or outstanding scientific analysis. Each paper published in the CUSJ undergoes a double-blind peer review process facilitated by the Journal's Editorial Review Board and a faculty review by a member of the Faculty Advisory Board. Publication in the CUSJ is highly competitive. CUSJ also hosts an annual spring Undergraduate Research Symposium. Students from any college are invited to submit abstracts for consideration to present a poster and/or give an oral presentation at the Symposium. Through the Symposium, the Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal aims to establish a forum for the display of outstanding undergraduate research to be viewed by faculty and students of pre-eminent Northeastern region research institutions. Attendees will also have the opportunity to hear about current research from distinguished Columbia faculty members. The CUSJ has two primary goals. First, the CUSJ aims to publish works of the highest scholarship authored primarily by undergraduates. Second, the CUSJ aims to educate students about the academic publication process, both from the inside as a member of the CUSJ staff and from the outside as a submitter to a scientific journal with academic standards that are as rigorous as any professional-level scientific publication. Please note that the deadline for submissions to our 2019-2020 issue has past, but please stay tuned for more information about submitting to our 2020-2021 issue this fall!

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CALCULATIONS AND UNIVERSAL BALANCED FUNCTION Arithmetical calculation is the origin and deals with numbers like addition, subtraction, division and multiplication and algebra with numbers and variables. Arithmetic is the basic branch (number theory) and algebra is the reunion of broken parts. a) 7+2=9 and 2+7=9 arithmetic b) 2t+2f=2f+2t algebra. c) If values of ‘t and f’ differ, the equation cannot stand which is not the case with definite figures in arithmetic. Algebra searches unknown. If something is needed in market, so it is ‘x’ and if it is a pen,’x’ is a pen. Look at the sky; can we account correctly how many stars are? The answer is ‘no’ and so it is taken as ‘x’, then known (assumed) are 1, 00,000; the equation will be x-1, 00,000=’y’. Here both ‘x and y’ are unknown. When ‘y’ is determined, then riddle is solved, as ‘x’ value is discovered. For all probable variables, algebra is the route. When search is completed, equations stand tall. But again equations are not as tall for assessing secrets of the nature with infinite form and a fraction may be perhaps known, that too depending upon variances, termed as universe. So unknown can be bracketed in algebra as ‘x, y, and z’ as quantifying numbers are hidden and not figured out. To know the natural function of the universe, a combined capsule of arithmetic and algebra is applied. Is there any other mode for accounting without this help? Whether arithmetic or algebra, it is based on earth conditions and relevant response alone. To locate universal secrets, the relativity has to stand between the earth and the universal objects as a whole. Considering harmony, there may be some common universal laws for all objects which can be reached by terming as unknown in algebra. In fact a single path of original branch of arithmetic would help better; as for unknown factors zero ‘0’ can be used; at the most 01, 02, 03 instead of ‘a, b, c or x’ for equations in algebra, making mathematics simpler. Universal operations are without linking past, present, future and based on the simplest but permanent auto calculations on friction and tapping with relevant fluctuations of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. This study can be framed in advanced arithmetic. When the universe came into being, undoubtedly it is with series of continued bangs that too with sustained time gaps in expanding travel. Is there any energy Centre to spread the empire? If it is invisible; then only two divisions surface; visible and invisible covering living and nonliving. Both carries soul energy, the former is self-activated and latter is not as here soul energy is limited to its static position unless activated externally. The universe is a capsule of mass and energy. Living activates mass for specific results; but mass is also activated by the nature to provide air, water, light etc. This is out of self-generated tapping transformation. Force, friction with mass resulting in velocity are the prime factors to promote bangs, one after other; as a single bang cannot frame out the sprawling universe. The energy output is as per the beats of mass contact with velocity which gets on to a recycle scenario for the final result. However the system is on the footing of tapping and twisting of mass by velocity on auto rhythm. It would be interesting to know the beginning of beginning to meet the recycle process. All this is not followed by the nature as per mathematics but by 2 harmonious relativity and behaviour. The universal energy follows ground rules of gravitation, anti-gravitation and reflection. Friction of mass and velocity are the building blocks of energy which is invisible. The velocity is with variances as per activation of mass and it is a combined capsule of time and space. Even gravitation and anti-gravitation impact factors of objects including the earth explain development of seasons. Gravitation and anti-gravitation range differs from object to object surfaces resulting in differences in seasonal climate. The nature with infinite setup has tapping transformation behaviour without any balance sheets and profit and loss account. The universal function only knows to give expecting nothing. Here lies the responsibility for keeping the environment clean for the simple reason that then only the nature can offer healthy and happy life. Dr.Einstein stated- it is an uncritical attitude to declare statistical character of the nature to be a fact but up to now we do not have any other theory. The nature stood for an orderly system obeying rules which could be discovered with courage and imagination. He even with his famous energy mass formula agreed that there must be something behind energy and was in search of systems which might open up secrets of the nature without any probabilities. In this context, it is rather surprising to note squares of 1 and 2 which are 1 and 4 respectively against the norm that square of same figure is more than the addition which states 1+1=2 and 2+2=4. So the values of a2 and b2, standing at 1 and 2 would present a different scenario in practical energy application routes. Force delivers velocity by friction with mass with variances as per gravitation and anti-gravitation on surface conditions. Time and space is a part of velocity and not in isolation. Hence study of velocity in reference to mass, gravitation and anti-gravitation is of utmost importance. For this no accounting system fits in to understand the infra-structure of the universe as a whole since it functions on auto principles without uncertainties. Here beats of bits of atomic sub particles in space may render some support in our understanding. The knowledge to know the universe with its infinite source empire is by its sound language which lifts tapping transformation. This will bring in such routes for the use of minimum resources and expenses to achieve the best maximum outputs. For example, one of the immeasurable objects, the sun alone is capable to provide light for the limitless areas. H V Navangul Age 82