Monthly Review

Monthly Review The official page for Monthly Review! If you would like to contact us, please use this form on our website: https://monthlyreview.org/contact/
In May 1949 Monthly Review began publication in New York City, as cold war hysteria gathered force in the United States. The first issue featured the lead article Why Socialism? by Albert Einstein. From the first Monthly Review spoke for socialism and against U.S. imperialism, and is still doing so today. From the first Monthly Review was independent of any political organization, and is still so today. The McCarthy era inquisition targeted Monthly Review's original editors Paul Sweezy and Leo Huberman, who fought back successfully. In the subsequent global upsurge against capitalism, imperialism and the commodification of life (in shorthand “1968”) Monthly Review played a global role. A generation of activists received no small part of their education as subscribers to the magazine and readers of Monthly Review Press books. In the intervening years of counter-revolution, Monthly Review has kept a steady viewpoint. That point of view is the heartfelt attempt to frame the issues of the day with one set of interests foremost in mind: those of the great majority of humankind, the propertyless.

In May 1949 Monthly Review began publication in New York City, as cold war hysteria gathered force in the United States. The first issue featured the lead article Why Socialism? by Albert Einstein. From the first Monthly Review spoke for socialism and against U.S. imperialism, and is still doing so today. From the first Monthly Review was independent of any political organization, and is still so today. The McCarthy era inquisition targeted Monthly Review's original editors Paul Sweezy and Leo Huberman, who fought back successfully. In the subsequent global upsurge against capitalism, imperialism and the commodification of life (in shorthand “1968”) Monthly Review played a global role. A generation of activists received no small part of their education as subscribers to the magazine and readers of Monthly Review Press books. In the intervening years of counter-revolution, Monthly Review has kept a steady viewpoint. That point of view is the heartfelt attempt to frame the issues of the day with one set of interests foremost in mind: those of the great majority of humankind, the propertyless. TODAY -- Monthly Review has had but 6 editors. The original editors were Paul Sweezy and Leo Huberman. Leo Huberman died in 1968, and Harry Magdoff became an editor in 1969. Ellen Meiksins Wood served ably as editor in the period 1997-2000. In May 2000 John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney, themselves of the "1968" generation and educated by Monthly Review, took over the primary editorial responsibilities. Founding editor Paul Sweezy died on February 27, 2004, and a special issue devoted to his work appeared in October 2004. On June 1, 2004 Robert McChesney ceased to be formally designated as an editor, while continuing as a contributor and a Director of the Monthly Review Foundation, the not-for-profit entity that operates both Monthly Review magazine and Monthly Review Press. Harry Magdoff died on New Year's Day, 2006. A special issue focusing on his contribution to the understanding of capitalism and imperialism appeared in October, 2006. John Bellamy Foster, the current editor, continues the tradition of combining accounts of what is new (without falling for fads) with the equally vital task of seeing the longer process. That tradition, as summarized by Paul Sweezy, is to see the present as history. On July 14th, 2006 we began a daily web magazine featuring a broad range of articles, reviews and commentary. Revenues from subscriptions and the sales of books have always fallen short of the demands on Monthly Review's resources. This is inevitable; in today's world any anti-imperialist and socialist enterprise that finds its resources sufficient to the tasks we face must either be moribund or false. The contributions—over and above subscriptions and book sales—of a global community of several thousand people sustain Monthly Review. Monthly Review today places most of its articles on the web and our daily web magazine has attracted a substantial and growing readership. If you have found our website of value, please consider subscribing to the magazine or, better yet, becoming an Associate.

"University managers everywhere are taking advantage of the situation to cut budgets hard. They’re stopping or pausing r...
04/21/2020
MR Online | University workers must not accept wage cuts in exchange for ‘job security’

"University managers everywhere are taking advantage of the situation to cut budgets hard. They’re stopping or pausing recruitment, ending contracts that would have otherwise been extended, sacking thousands of casual staff or significantly reducing the number of hours previously promised to casuals." Socialist Alternative - Red Flag

The government, university bosses and national officials of the National Tertiary Education Union are combining to attack uni workers’ pay and conditions.

The Fifteenth Newsletter (2020). from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research "Social and state institutions have ...
04/21/2020
MR Online | Femicide does not respect the quarantine

The Fifteenth Newsletter (2020). from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research "Social and state institutions have been so hollowed out in many parts of the world that they are simply not capable of managing either the health, social, or economic crisis" caused by the pandemic.

Days, weeks, months, an indeterminate amount of time as the world seems paralysed by the journey of SARS-CoV-2. The lack of certainty increases the anxiety. This virus, as Arundhati Roy writes…

This article by Don Fitz is being co-published by Green Social Thought and MR Online. Fitz’ new book, Cuban Health Care:...
04/21/2020
MR Online | Cuba: from AIDS, Dengue, and Ebola to COVID-19

This article by Don Fitz is being co-published by Green Social Thought and MR Online. Fitz’ new book, Cuban Health Care: The Ongoing Revolution, is forthcoming by Monthly Review Press in June, 2020.

Cuba’s preparation for COVID-19 began on January 1, 1959. On that day, it laid the foundations for what would become the discovery of novel drugs, bringing patients to the island…

A tribute to the Marxist sociologist, Eric Fromm, who died 40 years ago in March. By Kieran Durkin from the Section on M...
04/14/2020
MR Online | Erich Fromm’s Marxist Sociology forty years later

A tribute to the Marxist sociologist, Eric Fromm, who died 40 years ago in March. By Kieran Durkin from the Section on Marxist Sociology.

Erich Fromm (1900-1980), who passed forty years ago March of this year, was a leading Marxian sociologist who made considerable contributions to U.S. sociology and to U.S. Marxism.

"The unpreparedness didn’t arise from the suddenness of the onset of the illness, but from the privatisation and austeri...
04/14/2020
MR Online | The connivance of capitalists

"The unpreparedness didn’t arise from the suddenness of the onset of the illness, but from the privatisation and austerity policies imposed over the years." Rebel.

Socialist ideas have been jeered and sneered at by the same establishment now faced with the consequences of their profit driven contempt. We should be done with those bellowing cheerleaders of…

"In Latin America, the United States has imposed four coups d’état in this century and validated illegal presidents." Re...
04/14/2020
MR Online | Adolf Trump goes for Venezuela: A jump into nothingness?

"In Latin America, the United States has imposed four coups d’état in this century and validated illegal presidents." Resumen Latinoamericano.

In the midst of a desolate scenario, when the United States has become the country with the highest number of those infected by the Coronavirus, President Donald Trump and his team of serial criminals…

Martin Hart-Landsberg:  "In this two-part series I draw on the experience of World War II, when the state was forced to ...
04/14/2020
MR Online | The Green New Deal and the State: Lessons from World War II—Part I

Martin Hart-Landsberg: "In this two-part series I draw on the experience of World War II, when the state was forced to direct a rapid transformation from civilian to military production, to help encourage and concretize…discussion" about the Green New Deal.

There is growing interest in a Green New Deal, but far too little discussion among supporters about the challenging nature of the required economic transformation, the necessary role of public…

Dossier 27 from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research. "Key to the agroecological model is the concept of popula...
04/13/2020
MR Online | Dossier 27: Popular agrarian reform and the struggle for land in Brazil

Dossier 27 from Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research. "Key to the agroecological model is the concept of popular agrarian reform, which proposes the full-scale reorganisation of landholdings, and which will be discussed in this dossier."

The land question is central to understanding political life and society in Brazil. The country has enormous landed estates, known as latifundios, which have their roots in the beginning of the…

"From general utterances, we have to progress to facts, and to try to work out their implications. We have to seek to un...
04/13/2020
MR Online | The Coronavirus is stirring the impulse to communism

"From general utterances, we have to progress to facts, and to try to work out their implications. We have to seek to understand the essence of the problem, and to come up with a strategy for solving it." From Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal

The Coronavirus pandemic has laid bare the most acute problems of our collective life, its main contradictions.

Michael D. Yates: "The really sad thing here in the U.S. is that there are working people who support Trump, who think t...
04/13/2020
MR Online | Covid-19 is a sign of our fate if we do not take radical action: Interview of Michael D. Yates

Michael D. Yates: "The really sad thing here in the U.S. is that there are working people who support Trump, who think the Covid-19 threat is a hoax or not that serious, who are all too ready to blame foreigners and other countries."

In the backdrop of the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic, Michael D. Yates, decades-long union activist, director of Monthly Review Press and former Associate Editor of Monthly Review magazine…

Part 4 of a multi-part series by Nathan Tankus digging into the Federal Reserve's actions in response to the coronavirus...
04/13/2020
MR Online | The Federal Reserve’s Coronavirus Crisis Actions, explained (Part 4)

Part 4 of a multi-part series by Nathan Tankus digging into the Federal Reserve's actions in response to the coronavirus pandemic.

Ten days after the last central bank swap line announcement, the Federal Reserve followed up with an announcement of another facility meant to help a lower tier of central banks. In this facility the…

New this week! Paul Cockshott asks: Could a planning system work in a modern economy with a highly diversified product r...
04/13/2020
Monthly Review | Crisis of Socialism and Effects of Capitalist Restoration

New this week! Paul Cockshott asks: Could a planning system work in a modern economy with a highly diversified product range, and how would it overcome the socialist calculation argument of Mises?

This article will be released in full online April 13, 2020. The main criticism leveled at the socialist economies was that a planned economy was inherently less efficient than a market one…

Michael D. Yates: "Killers rule us. Trump, Pence, Kushner, and all the others. What can we call them but murderers? If a...
04/13/2020
MR Online | A note from Michael D. Yates

Michael D. Yates: "Killers rule us. Trump, Pence, Kushner, and all the others. What can we call them but murderers? If actions speak louder than words, then they are screaming at us, 'Die, we don’t care.'"

Killers rule us. Trump, Pence, Kushner, and all the others. What can we call them but murderers? If actions speak louder than words, then they are screaming at us, “Die, we don’t care.

Nathan Tankus: "If you assume that states need roughly 3000 dollars per person in their state (which is a reasonable ass...
04/13/2020
MR Online | Stanch the bleeding from local and state finances with local currencies

Nathan Tankus: "If you assume that states need roughly 3000 dollars per person in their state (which is a reasonable assumption given the average sales and/or income decline across the country and how much more could happen) that would amount to just under a trillion dollars. Clearly that is not forthcoming (yet)."

At the risk of making it seem like central bank swap lines are the solution to every problem, a swap line for local and state governments is the perfect tool using the Federal Reserve’s existing legal…

Michael Roberts: "In the light of the current pandemic, here is a rough excerpt from my upcoming short book on Engels’ c...
04/13/2020
MR Online | Engels on nature and humanity

Michael Roberts: "In the light of the current pandemic, here is a rough excerpt from my upcoming short book on Engels’ contribution to Marxian political economy on the 200th anniversary of his birth."

In the light of the current pandemic, here is a rough excerpt from my upcoming short book on Engels’ contribution to Marxian political economy on the 200th anniversary of his birth.

From 2007 but certainly apropos. Includes lyrical analysis from Understanding The Rhymes.
04/12/2020
MR Online | Brother Ali - Uncle Sam Goddamn

From 2007 but certainly apropos. Includes lyrical analysis from Understanding The Rhymes.

Ali raps in his verses that America is not the great place people make it out to be. He reminds us that slavery was present only two generations ago and extremely violent hate crimes occurred in the…

MR author John Smith: "Why is supernova–the explosion and death of a star–an apt metaphor for what could now be about to...
04/12/2020
MR Online | Why coronavirus could spark a capitalist supernova

MR author John Smith: "Why is supernova–the explosion and death of a star–an apt metaphor for what could now be about to unfold? Why could the coronavirus, an organism 1000th the diameter of a human hair, be the catalyst for such a cataclysm?" openDemocracy

There is no magic money tree – the ‘rescue packages’ aim to rescue a rotten system, and won’t work.

CADTM: "We are going through a complete crisis that threatens life in all its forms. The COVID-19 has become a pandemic ...
04/11/2020
MR Online | Call of the indigenous peoples, afro-descendants and peoples’ organizations of Latin America.

CADTM: "We are going through a complete crisis that threatens life in all its forms. The COVID-19 has become a pandemic at a time when the capitalist crisis is intensifying and economic forces repeatedly try to make the working class bear the onus of restoring the corporate profit rate."

The crisis that COVID-19 has provoked globally presents a crossroads to the peoples of Abya Yala – Latin America. The popular organizations are the first line of resistance against the worst…

Statement from President Nicolas Maduro Moros about U.S. military aggression. Stop the Machine! Create a New World
04/11/2020
MR Online | Letter from President Maduro as U.S. threatens Venezuela with war

Statement from President Nicolas Maduro Moros about U.S. military aggression. Stop the Machine! Create a New World

In greeting you, with affection, I take the liberty of addressing you on the occasion of denouncing the severe events taking place against the peace and stability of Venezuela, at a time when the…

Danny Haiphong: "U.S. imperialism has loathed China and Cuba ever since the mid-20th century…. The COVID-19 pandemic cur...
04/10/2020
MR Online | China and Cuba’s medical internationalism is a shining example of global solidarity

Danny Haiphong: "U.S. imperialism has loathed China and Cuba ever since the mid-20th century…. The COVID-19 pandemic currently wreaking havoc on the U.S. and the West challenges the very legitimacy of the imperialist narrative against China and Cuba." Black Agenda Report

China sends medical equipment abroad, Cuba sends doctors and cutting-edge drugs, but the U.S. fails to provide its people, doctors and nurses with basic tools and protection.

M.K. Bhadrakumar: "Russia is…borrowing from the U.S. diplomatic toolbox—the equivalent of what the U.S. does constantly ...
04/10/2020
MR Online | A Russian firewall for Venezuela against U.S. sanctions

M.K. Bhadrakumar: "Russia is…borrowing from the U.S. diplomatic toolbox—the equivalent of what the U.S. does constantly in its war on terrorism, that is, whenever a terrorist group that Washington sponsors gets exposed on the battlefield, it gets promptly rebranded and reappears as a new avatar, and life moves on."

The optics of the Russian oil leviathan Rosneft’s decision to sell its subsidiary Rosneft Trading SA and sell all its assets in Venezuela after the US Treasury sanctioned its trading arm two weeks ago…

Nathan Tankus: "Congress inadequately funds reducing unemployment in the best of times. However, in the worst of times i...
04/10/2020
MR Online | The Coronavirus depression requires a new approach to budgeting

Nathan Tankus: "Congress inadequately funds reducing unemployment in the best of times. However, in the worst of times it does even worse as its programs are always far smaller than the need because they can’t bring themselves to authorize programs with such large price tags associated with them."

Congress recently passed a 1.5-1.7 Trillion dollar stimulus bill (as I wrote about last week, the reported headline number is including a useless accounting gimmick which provides no additional…

New at MR Online for 04/10/2020 -
04/10/2020
New at MR Online for 04/10/2020

New at MR Online for 04/10/2020 -

COVID-19, the illness caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the second severe acute respiratory syndrome virus since 2002, is now officially a pandemic. As of late March, whole cities are sheltered in place and, one by one, hospitals are lighting up in medical gridlock brought about by surges in patient...

"At a time when responsible journalism is required to inform the public, irresponsible stories by many of “renowned” int...
04/09/2020
MR Online | Western media unlocked: Hypocrisy behind COVID-19 reports

"At a time when responsible journalism is required to inform the public, irresponsible stories by many of “renowned” international outlets have featured rumors, discrimination and even racism." #xenophobia #racism #sinophobia China Daily

Why did apparently stigmatizing names like Chinese virus or Wuhan virus keep making headlines? How have the Western media shaped the narrative of China’s response to the novel coronavirus?

14th Newsletter (2020) Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research: "Incompetent and heartless governments put the ham...
04/09/2020
MR Online | These migrant workers did not suddenly fall from the sky

14th Newsletter (2020) Tricontinental: Institute for Social Research: "Incompetent and heartless governments put the hammer down on society without any planning or concern for those with few resources. It is one thing for the elite or the middle class to stay at home, work using the Internet, and muddle through teaching their children from home; it is another for the billions of migrant labourers and day labourers, people who live hand to mouth, and people who have no homes."

Madness engulfs the planet. Hundreds of millions of people are in lockdown in their homes, millions of people who work in essential jobs–or who cannot afford to stay home without state…

A review of Donny Gluckstein and Terry Sullivan, Hegel and Revolution from International Socialism.
04/09/2020
MR Online | A dialectical delight

A review of Donny Gluckstein and Terry Sullivan, Hegel and Revolution from International Socialism.

A review of Donny Gluckstein and Terry Sullivan, Hegel and Revolution (Bookmarks, 2020), £7.

David Ruccio: "Although claims are at record highs, many Americans across the United States have been unable to successf...
04/09/2020
MR Online | Chart of the day

David Ruccio: "Although claims are at record highs, many Americans across the United States have been unable to successfully apply for unemployment insurance because an unprecedented level of claims is overwhelming state labor department websites and jamming up phone lines."

Although claims are at record highs, many Americans across the United States have been unable to successfully apply for unemployment insurance because an unprecedented level of claims is overwhelming…

The Covid-19 "pandemic is a reminder, if one were needed, that humans are part of a much wider living world of non-human...
04/09/2020
MR Online | What is the ‘metabolic rift’?

The Covid-19 "pandemic is a reminder, if one were needed, that humans are part of a much wider living world of non-human species and ecosystems. The relation between capitalism, socialism and the environment is by no means settled and is…a developing area of Marxist theory and practice. It is one with which we can all engage." Marx Memorial Library

The MARX MEMORIAL LIBRARY takes a look at how Marxists can explore the relation between capitalism, socialism and the environment.

Victor Grossman: "Some, despite all attempts by the mass media, may…get wind of how well-planned & very generous poor li...
04/08/2020
MR Online | Corona and what then?

Victor Grossman: "Some, despite all attempts by the mass media, may…get wind of how well-planned & very generous poor little Cuba was in helping others deal with the pandemic, in Italy, Spain and many other countries."

Berlin, like many of your hometowns, is a ghost city. Except for those offering groceries, medicines or medical care, everything is shut tight. Luckily, no-one here has to stay inside…

Address

134 W 29TH ST RM 706
New York, NY
10001-5304

From within the city exit at the 28th Street station; or Pennsylvania Station from outside the city.

Opening Hours

Monday 09:00 - 17:00
Tuesday 10:00 - 17:00
Wednesday 10:00 - 17:00
Thursday 10:00 - 17:00
Friday 10:00 - 17:00

Telephone

(212) 691-2555

Alerts

Be the first to know and let us send you an email when Monthly Review posts news and promotions. Your email address will not be used for any other purpose, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

Contact The Business

Send a message to Monthly Review:

Nearby media companies


Comments

THANKS TO MR TEAM, THE WORST IS OVER: IT IS NO MORE THE END OF THE WORLD ANYMORE AND WE WILL OVERCOME!!! S&T IS NOT FOR PRIVATE PROFIT: IT IS FOR SOCIAL WELFARE. RESEARCH PROJECTS AIMED AT PRIVATE PROFITs SHOULD BE PROHIBITED! BY A UN-SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE!
An analysis worth reading ...
from Bergamo 12 TESIS EN CONTRA DE LA PANDEMIA POLÍTICA Y SOCIAL por Michele Nobile
Great sociological and scientific explanations almost all so-called leftist failed to explore.. "Furthermore, technological and demographic developments of the last few centuries have created conditions which are here to stay..." : It is only a slight exaggeration to say that mankind constitutes even now a planetary community of production and consumption." "The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is, in my opinion, the real source of the evil. We see before us a huge community of producers the members of which are unceasingly striving to deprive each other of the fruits of their collective labor—not by force, but on the whole in faithful compliance with legally established rules." Thankful to GARGI publication for bringing in close brush with this great human.
WHY DO MOST EGALITARIANS GET THEIR HISTORY OF SOCIALISM COMPLETELY BACKWARD? Background Many "levelers" (economic egalitarians or collectivists) believe that "Socialism is the total opposite of capitalism/imperialism. It is the rejection of empire and white supremacy. Socialism is the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie, the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat, and the eradication of the social system based on profit. Socialism means control of the productive forces for the good of the whole community instead of the few who live on hilltops and in mansions. Socialism means priorities based on human need instead of human greed. Socialism creates the conditions for a decent and creative quality of life for all." Of course, the number of admitted adherents to this definition diminishes when these collectivists learn that this rendering of socialism comes from the Weather Underground in its 1974 Prairie Fire Manifesto. [Note: Their chagrin only multiplies when they learn the motto of Vladimir Lenin's newspaper, "The Left Voice" was "A single spark can start a prairie fire".] Ayn Rand defined collectivism in 1944 magazine article ("The Only Path To Tomorrow") as "... the subjugation of the individual to the group ... Collectivism holds that man must be chained to collective action and collective thought for the sake of what is called 'the common good'". Currently, there is an almost endless drumbeat of anti-capitalist and pro-socialist articles in almost all newspapers, magazines and on many websites. One goal of these numerous essays is to mislead the American electorate regarding the history of socialism both in the US and around the world. Perhaps several examples will suffice to demonstrate this point. The New York Times on July 6, 2019, in its Sunday Review section printed Sitaraman & Alsort as follows: "The struggle between capitalism and socialism is back." And that "Americans don't need to resign themselves to vicious capitalism ..." In the Aug. 12, 2019 edition of the Los Angeles Review of Books Prof. Christian Fuchs cited three left-wing authors to his readers to remind them that "... liberalism and capitalism have inherent fascist potential (and) that fascism is a terroristic version of capitalism." Inexplicably, many (most?) redistributionists apparently choose to ignore the clear-cut results of socialism's many actual historic experiments which can be handily recounted. Socialism (millenarian collectivism) traces its roots to 1789 and the French Revolution which is commonly known as "The Terror". Of course, this led solely to tyranny and ultimately to the guillotine.[One must recognize that the vast majority of those who were beheaded in France were from the middle and lower classes and not from the aristocracy.] (See: "Tyrants" by Waller Newell) Beginning in the 1820s there was a wave of cooperatives (socialist experiments) formed in the US and Europe led by men like Robert Owen but most had failed by 1840. The average life span of these many "co-ops" was only two years. [See: https://www.c-span.org/video/?460856-1/heaven-earth ]. The Socialist Party of America was formed in 1901 by Eugene Debs and Mr. Debs (from 1904 till 1920) never got more than 6% of the vote in any presidential election. From 1924 through 1948 Debs was replaced by Norman Thomas whose election results were also always in the low single digits. [Note: Interestingly, Mr. Thomas was always (like George Orwell) rabidly anti-communist and some fear that their combined virulence may not have rubbed off on many of today's left-wing collectivist authors since it is suspected that some of these socialists may actually hold neo-Marxist views.] Since 1948 the Socialist Party in the US has only steadily faded away. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Party_of_America ]. In fact, the Democratic Socialists of America today boasts of less than 60,000 members which are a paltry few although their membership has grown from only 6,000 to 56,000 in just two years. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_Party_of_America ]. Economic historians cite three face-to-face "experiments" since WW II in which capitalism and socialism can be directly compared and these are West Germany vs. East Germany after 1945; China vs. Taiwan after 1949 and North Korea vs. South Korea after 1952. Suffice it to say that socialism has never measured up very well anywhere. [Note: Some experts in economic history are today examining Venezuela vs. Chile and many are reaching the very same conclusion.] On the other hand, capitalism has lifted over one billion people out of abject poverty in just the last 12 years. [See: https://www.economist.com/leaders/2013/06/01/towards-the-end-of-poverty ]. All of this might lead some to ask -- What took capitalism so long to work its magic on much of the developing world? And economic history is also quite clear on this point. In 1947 India after its independence from Great Britain opted for socialism. Indeed, socialism is mandated by the Indian Constitution and for more than 40 years India was the world's largest social democracy. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism_in_India ]. In 1949 China followed suit but of course, selected only collectivism and not democracy. Obviously, capitalism could not work its wonders in a socialist nation. In 1978 after Mao's death China adopted market-based reforms and one need not recount the upward explosion in human economic well-being that followed. India saw the resulting skyrocketing increase in overall living standards in China and instituted market reforms of their own starting in 1991. Since then these two nations have lifted a combined one billion of their citizens out of subsistence poverty. [See: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/china/overview ]. In 1945 Clement Atlee defeated Winston Churchill in Great Britain and quickly proceeded to nationalize most of that country's major industries. By the 1970s the whole world was talking about the "British Disease" and the "Sick Man of Europe". This led to the election in 1979 of Margaret Thatcher who insisted that "No theory of government was ever given a fairer test or a more prolonged experiment than democratic socialism received in Britain. Yet it was a miserable failure in every respect..." [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_British_disease ]. Indeed, Mrs. Thatcher insisted that "To cure the British disease with socialism was like trying to cure leukemia with leeches." [See: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/margaret_thatcher_127092 ]. Israel is another instructive example. This new country's founding principles (Zionism) took a socialist form of communal organization (kibbutzim). In the early 1980s, Israel suffered from hyperinflation (445% In 1984). In 1985 Israel adopted an Economic Stabilization Plan (wage and price controls) which failed. Then Bibi Netanyahu, during his first term (1996 - 1999) began instituting market-based reforms. In 1999 he lost and upon his later return as Prime Minister, he slashed public sector spending, privatized and deregulated industry. He also drastically cut taxes and reformed Israel's labor laws. Today Israel has risen from a relatively poor country to a growing wealthy nation. [See: https://www.israel21c.org/israel-the-history-of-an-economic-miracle/ ]. During the 1960s much of sub-Saharan Africa chose collectivism and all of these nations then entered a period of rising abject poverty. A single set of statistics tells the entire story regarding socialism in sub-Saharan Africa. When the British and the other colonizers left Africa the poverty rate stood at 11%. By 1998 under their new indigenous socialist governments this figure had skyrocketed to 66% and now as some of these nations have begun to re-introduce market-based reforms this percentage has fallen to 20% today. Still way too high but currently moving in the right direction. [See: https://books.google.com/books?id=2T_RbtTslzEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Dead+Aid:+Why+Aid+Is+Not+Working+and+How+There+Is+a+Better+Way+for+Africa&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie-KSrjZLjAhWBVs0KHbzTAi4Q6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=11%20per%20cent&f=false ] Next take Sweden, once one of the most socialistic of the Nordic countries, as another case study. Some years ago the Swedes opted for social democracy and since 1981 Sweden' annual GDP growth rate has averaged only 0.56%. [See: https://tradingeconomics.com/sweden/gdp-growth ]. In other words, the growth in human economic well-being in Sweden was virtually stagnant. Then in 1992, a major financial crisis hit Sweden as interest rates soared to a brief high of 500%. [See: https://finance.townhall.com/columnists/markskousen/2019/08/15/surprise-surprise-100-of-workers-in-this-country-invest-in-stocks-n2551730 ]. As a result, the Swedes became very disenchanted with the results of their collectivism and began converting their economy back to a more market-based system. The Swedes cut their income tax. They also abolished their wealth tax, their inheritance tax, and their property tax. They reduced the corporate tax from 28% to 22% and the new coalition government has recently promised to make further reductions. This one-time social democracy has lowered its tax to GDP ratio from 52% (one of the world’s highest) to 45% and the new government has announced still more cuts for 2020. The overall result is that in 1975 fifty percent of Swedish companies were government-owned and today this figure has been cut in half and Sweden is now the fourth richest country in the world in trems of per capita wealth. [See: https://fee.org/articles/is-sweden-socialist-no-but/ ]. Turning to Denmark, while Lars Lokke Rasmussen was Prime Minister he stated that "I know that some people in the US associate the Nordic model with some sort of socialism. Therefore, I would like to make one thing clear. Denmark is far from a planned economy. Denmark is a market economy." [See: https://renreport.com/will-favourable-views-of-socialism-in-young-people-last/ ]. Indeed, according to the Economic Freedom Index, all of the countries in Scandinavia are far more capitalist than socialist. [See: https://www.heritage.org/index/ ]. All Nordic countries have no minimum wage and each offers full school choice. In addition, Denmark and Sweden have greatly reduced unemployment benefits. Some redistributionalists still cling to Norway as the final redoubt of Nordic democratic socialism but this tiny country adheres to its mix of capitalism and socialism solely because of that nation's massive offshore oil and natural gas deposits. In May of 1963 Norway claimed the petroleum reserves off of its coast and in 1969 they struck oil which now produces 1,600,000 barrels per day. As a result, Norway's GDP rose from $12 billion to $65 billion in only ten years. The government wisely formed a sovereign wealth fund which today is worth $1 trillion the largest in the world. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_in_Norway ]. No socialist in France had won the presidency from the inception of the Fifth Republic in 1958 until 1981 when Francois Mitterrand ascended to that high office. As president, Mr. Mitterrand quickly implemented a program of nationalization coupled with an economic stimulus designed to jump-start France's flagging economy. His election could not have come at a worse time. The world was suffering from a new phenomenon called "stagflation" and in less than two years after his election, President Mitterrand was forced to sharply curtail his collectivist efforts. [See: http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/socFrance.htm ]. Even the well known Slovenian philosopher, Slavoj Zizek, (who is a self described "political radical") admits that "Social democracy is of another era" and that "A simple return to old (20th century) social democratic welfare states can not work" due to "digitalization through new forms of science (and) new forms of liberal capitalism." [See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7JgfB8PaAk ]. From 1998 to 2015 fifteen Latin American countries elected socialist presidents in a trend called the "Pink Tide". [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_tide ]. Now, Oxfam reports that Latin America has remained the most unequal region in the world. [See: https://blogs.oxfam.org/en/blogs/17-12-18-latin-america-remains-most-unequal-region-world ]. Also, according to the Igarape Institute, Latin America has persisted in being the most violent place on the planet. [See: https://igarape.org.br/en/latin-americas-poverty-is-down-but-violence-is-up-why/ ]. The UN asserts that Latin America has had no reduction in poverty and that extreme poverty has increased to its highest level since 2008. [See: https://www.cepal.org/en/pressreleases/poverty-latin-america-remained-steady-2017-extreme-poverty-increased-highest-level ]. Corruption has continued unabated and all of this has led to a counter wave that includes new conservative leaders in Brazi, Argentina, Guatemala, El Salvador, Columbia, Chile, Peru, and Paraguay. [See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v-f0nfQyi4 ]. Some of the people of Latin America who tried collectivism did not like what they got. This is especially true in Venezuela. Let's examine Iran. The 1979 revolution promised three things: independence, social justice, and democracy & freedom. After 40 years there has been a 17-fold increase in the number of Iranians living in slums. Iran's Gini coefficient has remained high while a growing sense of disillusionment and frustration forcefully erupted in the Green Movement in 2009, as well as, another upheaval in 2017-2018. [See: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2019/07/11/four-decades-later-did-the-iranian-revolution-fulfill-its-promises/ ]. Arab socialism (Ba'athism) began in Syria in the 1940s and later spread to Iraq but neither emphasized pure Marxism nor class struggle. In the 1970s neo-Ba'athism evolved and morphed into Assadism and Saddamism with their accompanying fascism and racism. Since then Saddam has been removed while Assad's son has been fighting a prolonged civil war against rebels who strive for freedom and economic growth. [See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ba%27athism ]. The book, "Heaven on Earth" (2nd edition 2019) summarizes all of this with "Socialism was man's most ambitious attempt to supplant religion with a doctrine claiming to ground itself in 'science'. Each failure to create societies of abundance or give birth to 'The New Man' inspired more searching for a path to the promised land: revolution, communes, social democracy, communism, fascism, Arab socialism, African socialism. None worked and some exacted a staggering human toll. Then, after two centuries of wishful thinking and bitter disappointment socialism imploded in a fin de siècle drama of falling walls and collapsing regimes. It was an astonishing denouement but what followed was no less astonishing. After a hiatus of several decades, new voices were raised, as if innocent of all that had come before, proposing to try it all over again." Summary Thus the economic record is clear. Over the last 230 years, socialism has caused only poverty, misery and human suffering. [See" https://iea.org.uk/publications/socialism-the-failed-idea-that-never-dies/ ] While capitalism (in the opinion of many, humankind's greatest invention since the wheel) has been slashing poverty as the next graph clearly documents. In a 2018 article in Foreign Affairs Magazine the esteemed historian, Prof. Walter Russel Mead, offered that over a 35 year period our nation had been plagued by "Ineffective politicians, frequent scandals, racial backsliding, polarized and irresponsible news media, populists spouting quack economic remedies, growing suspicion of elites and experts, frightening outbreaks of violence, major job losses, high profile terrorist attacks, anti-immigrant agitation, rising inequality and the appearance of a new class of super-powered billionaires in finance and technology-heavy industries." But, Prof. Mead was writing about the period in American history from 1865 till 1901 after the end of the US Civil War. Like the movie "Groundhog Day" history only repeats itself but no one ever seems to notice that human economic improvement and overall well-being only continue to spiral ever upward. Does anyone really want to go back to living in caves eating nuts, berries, and roots, scavenging dead meat and consuming an occasional fresh kill where everyone is mostly equal? Given an informed choice, almost all of us would, one strongly suspects, opt for individualism and capitalism every time.